Monday, December 31, 2012


Kitabu hiki ni toleo ya kwanza kabisa katika lugha ya Kiswahili, ni tafsiri ya kile kitabu kiitwacho 'Bible Home Instructor" kilichoandikwa na Andrew N. Dugger mwaka wa 1919. Ikiwa wahitaji nakala usisite kutujulisha.

This book is the first ever edition of the book "Bible Home Instructor" in Swahili language. The book was first written by elder Andrew N. Dugger in the year 1919. If you need a copy don't hesitate to write to us.

Sunday, December 30, 2012




BOX 1527-50100 KAKAMEGA.

Dec, 2012 Edition.

“To God be the glory, Great things He hath done”

“This work is dedicated
to my two boys
Derrick and Dennis
may they live long
and defend the truth
 all the days of their lives.”

Permission to use our articles for websites, research, books, or for other uses is allowed provided a suitable credit is posted. A credit such as the following would be deemed appropriate:
"Article courtesy of Olivet Research Group Academic Resource."


At first I used to write articles under the name of the Church that I fellowshipped with. It came a time when one of our leading church members summoned me. He advised me that, I should use my name on the articles as the church’s position at times might be different from the article. To him if that happened then the whole name of the church will be drawn into controversies.

I heed to his advice and published a few articles on my name, but reached a point when I decided to look for a better way of doing things. After a few discussions with a friend, we decided to start an organization based in western Kenya. First, we settled for the name, ‘Mount Olives Ministries’. At the time we were financially lame to the extent that we could not afford to rent a postal box. We decided to use a brother’s postal address for our ministry. This was a bit challenging, as I was based in Kisii, my co-worker was based in Malaba and the postal address was in Busia!

We managed to publish a few tracts by the name of ‘Mount Olives Ministries’. Most people thought that this was a new church coming up and is in the process of recruiting members. Though our mission statement and vision were clear and yes, you are right, Mount Olives Ministries just ceased to exist.

The will and the passion was still their, after making a few contacts on the internet. I received lots of requests allover the world for articles on most Biblical doctrines. It’s when that I revamped the zeal and decided now it will be an academic research and resource organization. I decided to retain the name Olives in the form of Olivet, as the reason we first settled on the name ‘Olives’ was because we believed that Mount Olives at this time of the end will play a critical role, as it is on this mountain that the Lord’s feet will touch during the second advent. Our mission was and still is to equip and prepare a people for the second coming of Jesus Christ.

So far, Olivet Research Group Academic and Resource has been able to publish a number of booklets and articles and our materials have been of benefit to people allover the world. A few months ago we received requests from as far as New Zealand, Nigeria and USA.


Many people are ignorant of the existing divisions in the Sabbath keeping churches. Not once you will see someone amazed on hearing that there are other Sabbath keeping groups save Seventh Day Adventists. The truth is that their exists more than 1000 different Sabbath keeping groups.

Being brought up in a Sabbath keeping family, I still have memories when young and used to attend Sabbath services in a local public school. I still remember in the school we used to conduct our Sabbath services, were other two or so Sabbath keeping churches. But we were not allowed to fellowship with the other groups neither them fellowshipped with us. Once in a while a visitor would come to visit us only to realize that he entered the wrong congregation (room). Then he would leave to the next room where Sabbath services were in progress.

No one ever told me why we were never allowed to fellowship with other groups in the school we attended. No one ever told me that we had a few differences in our fundamental beliefs. Once in a while a Sabbath keeping parent would punish his/her child for going to the other room for Sabbath fellowship. So we grew up just knowing that we were not to fellowship with the groups that meets in such and such room.

During my years as a youth in the Sabbath keeping church, the trends were almost the same. I just came to learn that Sabbath keepers are of different groups and am not supposed to fellowship with those of a different group. Once friends went for a Sabbath service in a different group and the outcomes were not pleasing. They were reprimanded in presence of all members by our church elder.

My knowledge was that our group was the only true group and for one to enter the Kingdom, he/she should join us. I could defend our group to the bitter end in any debate with all courage and energy.

Years passed and I became more interested in the history of the church and history of the Sabbath. That is when I came to the knowledge that all Sabbath keeping churches have the same origin. This knowledge opened me up to other groups and made me cease from being a particular group’s apologist.

A divided Sabbath a united Sabbath is a two tie book that deals with some of the issues that separates and some that unites the Sabbath keeping churches/congregations. Book one, tackles issues that divides the Sabbath keeping family and thus answers the question, ‘why so many factions?’
Book Two on the other hand answers the question, ‘what does Sabbath keepers have in common?’

My mentor the late Richard Nickels, tried to write on this issue in an article study No. 163 ‘Similarities and Differences Between Sabbatarian Churches’ In the article he dealt with only five of the many Sabbath keeping groups in summary form. To my opinion he would have done an excellent job, if he were the one to write this book. But because God never allowed him to do it but me, I have given it all my best.

It’s my hope and prayer that after going through the two books, the reader will see the necessity of appreciating other Sabbath keepers as potential heirs of the kingdom of heaven.

Readers are asked to send their comments and concerns to the address given on the cover.

NB/ Worldwide Church of God as mentioned in this book refers to Worldwide Church of God prior to the watering down of their fundamentals points of beliefs i.e. up to 1985.



The feasts:
The Veil:
Sabbath Observance:
Sacred Names:
Day of crucifixion:
Kingdom of Heaven:
Bearded men:
Dress code:
Women and Church leadership:


The Bible:
The Sabbath:
Clean and unclean animals:
Kingdom on earth:
The state of the death:
Punishment of sinners:
Marriage Institution:
Pagan Holydays:
The Second Advent:
Message of Peace and Love or of hatred?



Now this I say, that every one of you saith, I am of Paul; and I of Apollos; and I of Cephas; and I of Christ.

Is Christ divided? was Paul crucified for you? or were ye baptized in the name of Paul?” Paul the Apostle.

This book analyses different point of doctrines that have been used to divide the Sabbath keepers into various groups. When a division is eminent in the Sabbath keeping group, usually a tug of war is declared and each group now rushes to hold the rope at opposite end. Each armed with what to them seems to be genuine reasons why they should separate. At times what they call genuine reasons may not even be valid reasons but are used only to serve the selfish interests of their leader.

It’s of interest to note that at one point in history all the Sabbath keepers agreed on main points of doctrine save the Seventh Day Baptist which am not quite familiar with their earlier doctrine. Those who later became Seventh Day Adventists, Church of God 7th day, Sacred Name groups, Worldwide Church of God, etc used to fellowship together. They all had one faith, one hope and one doctrine.

What really is the difference between these Sabbath keeping groups? Do they differ that much in doctrine or is the difference in leadership alone?

This book identifies some of the points that divide these groups and makes members from group A uncomfortable to attend a service in group B. I must agree that some differences might have been generated due to leadership style but over time something was adopted to make them different from their original group.

Am a Sabbath keeper as you are, then why is it difficult for us to fellowship together? To answer that question, I have devoted myself into analysis of some of the reasons that are given to prove how Sabbath keeping churches/assemblies are different from one another.


What are feasts?

They are the celebrations and holydays of Israel, when they commemorate great things that God did to their forefathers. Most of the feasts are mentioned in Leviticus 23:4-44, one in the book of Esther and another one in the books of Maccabbes.

They are as follows;
a)     Passover and feasts of unleavened bread.- Lev. 23:5,6.
b)    Pentecost. Lev.23:15-22.
c)     Trumpets. Lev. 23:24.
d)    Atonement. Lev.23: 27.
e)     Tabernacles Lev.23:34.
f)      Purim Esther 9:26-32.
g)     Hanukkah.

The Passover was first commemorated in the land of Egypt on the eve of the Israelites leaving the Egyptian bondage (Exodus 12). That same night of 14th Nisan, the angel of God passed over the houses of Israelites and smote all the Egyptians firstborns to death.

These was a very serious event in that God commanded Moses that no leaven should be found in the habitation of the Israelites! A ceremony marked by blood! In three verses, God informed Moses that it will be an ordinance to be kept throughout the generations of Israel i.e. forever;

And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.” Verse 14.

And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever.” Verse 17.

And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever.” Verse 24.

As to the meaning of the words “for ever,” many Bible scholars still doesn’t agree to the length of these words. Some argue that for ever should mean just that! NO END, while others argue that it means till the NEW COVENANT i.e. Messiah.
In the New dispensation, our Saviour came and instituted a new ordinance which majority of Sabbath keeper’s agrees on.

And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; for this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom.” Matt.26:26-30.

It’s of interest to note that this ordinance was instituted the same night that Passover was eaten, check Matthew 26: 19, 20, to realize that the purpose of their meeting was for the Passover celebrations. Apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians 11:23, elaborates to us that it was at night, when Jesus started this New ordinance;

For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread:”


Majority of Sabbath keepers apart from the Seventh Day Adventist’s and her offshoots still commemorates the Lord’s Supper/Passover on 14th Nisan each year. The differences in these groups are on the number of days that they should celebrate this feast.

Majority of them keep the Passover and the feasts of unleavened bread for seven days just as the book of Leviticus commanded. These groups usually assemble together and during this period they have times for sermons, songs, praises etc.

A few groups keep a one day/one night celebrations where they meet break the bread and retire to their homes after the ordinance. These groups argue that after Jesus and his disciples had broken the bread they never continued with the feast of unleavened bread but went to the mountains;
And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives.” Matthew 26:30.

Keeping these two groups together is something that has proved to be an uphill task. Those who keep the feasts of unleavened bread see those who don’t as still in bondage and vice versa.
Seventh day Adventist partakes the Lord’s Supper on quarterly basis at different times according to their programmes. At times it might be in the morning, lunch times or evening depending on which time is convenient to them. To them specific dates and times are of no importance. They argue that in Corinthians, Apostle Paul commanded the Christians to partake the Lord’s Supper as often as they could and thus can not wait for a specific date in a year;

For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come.” 1 Corinthians 11:26.

To Sabbath keepers who commemorate it on 14th Nisan, those who don’t do as required have missed the only true day of Passover/Lord’s supper and thus are doing it unworthy. To them commemoration should be on the same day and time as the original event, thus 14th Nisan in the evening. Some argue that it’s called Lord’s Supper and no supper is taken in the morning or at lunch time!

Still there are a few Sabbath keepers who commemorate it on 14th Nisan at 3 pm i.e. a few hours to 15th Nisan. This group argue that Passover is the commemoration of the death of Christ, thus it ought to be eaten the day of his death which was according to them 14th Nisan at around 3 p.m;

But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building; Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us. For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh: How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God? And for this cause he is the mediator of the New Testament that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance. For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator. For a testament is of force after men are dead: otherwise it is of no strength at all while the testator liveth.” Hebrews 9:11-17

Some still argue that the offering is complete only after the sacrifice has been offered and thus celebrate the Passover on 15th Nisan because the sacrifice was offered on 14th Nisan.

Now all these groups defend their way of partaking Passover and holds to         1 Corinthians 11:27-29 that other groups are doing it in unworthy manner. A member from one group finds it difficult to partake Passover/Lord’s supper according to the argument of the next group and thus it becomes difficult for them to fellowship together in this great ordinance.

Feet Washing:

Still some divisions are being seen as to when to administer the ordinance quoted in John;

He riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel, and girded himself. After that he poureth water into a bason, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded. Then cometh he to Simon Peter: and Peter saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet?  Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt know hereafter.John 13:4-7.

Almost all Sabbath keepers believe that Passover/Lord’s supper should be accompanied by feet washing as the above verses states. The only difference is when feet washing should be done. A few groups argue that it should be done after the supper/Passover while majority argue that it should be before. Mainstream Church of God and Seventh Day Adventist wash their feet before partaking the bread. To this groups anyone who washes after the partaking of the bread is doing it unworthy and should be weary of apostle Paul’s warning in 1 Corinthians 11:27-29.

Those who wash after eating the bread argue that in John 13, Jesus had already eaten the supper in verse 2. After eating is when he stood (from the supper) verse 4 and start washing the feet of his disciples’ verse 5. To them, those who wash before eating are doing the Lord’s supper in unworthy manner and should heed to Apostle Paul’s warning in 1 Corinthians 11:27-29.

Those who wash before the Lord’s Supper argues as follows; It should be noted that there are two suppers that met during the Lord’ Jesus commanded his disciples to go and prepare the Passover (as per the Jews traditions and practice). The apostles never knew that their will be another supper, they had knowledge of only the traditional Jewish Passover. In verse 4 we are told that Jesus rose from the supper and verse 12 i.e. after washing the feet we are told he sat down. Verses 23-25, we notice that one was lying on the Master’s breast. This was after the washing of feet, and chapter 21:20 we are told that it was at supper when he leaned on His breast. Thus feet washing came before the Lord’s Supper but after the Jewish traditional Passover.

According to the available history, the practice of feet washing has been a custom of Sabbath keepers and the history leans towards feet washing before partaking the bread.


The feast of Pentecost is kept differently by different groups, some keep these feast according to the counting of 50 days as from the first High Sabbath day (15th Nisan). This counting usually gives the date of this feast as 6th Sivan (third month). This counting agrees with many Jewish calendars.

And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the Sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven Sabbaths shall be complete: Even unto the morrow after the seventh Sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto the LORD.” Leviticus 23:15, 16.

Some of the groups keep the feast of Pentecost on a specific day of the week; some keep it on the first Sunday after the 50th day, while others keep it on a Monday after the 50th day.

Church of God The Eternal and some exWorldwide Churches of God have this in their points of doctrine;

The Feast of Pentecost always, falls on Monday, counting fifty complete days from the morrow after the Sabbath during the Feast of Unleavened Bread.”

To them the counting should start from ‘morrow’ of the Sabbath day (Saturday) during the Passover feast i.e. on Sunday. Thus by this counting, the feast of Pentecost will always fall on a Monday.

Some of the groups argue that the purpose of this feast was fulfilled by the pouring of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:1- ) and thus argue that it should not be commemorated.

Those who keep Pentecost use the following Biblical verses to argue their cause that even apostle Paul and the early church kept this feast;

And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place.” Acts 2:1

For Paul had determined to sail by Ephesus, because he would not spend the time in Asia: for he hasted, if it were possible for him, to be at Jerusalem the day of Pentecost.” Acts 20:16.

But I will tarry at Ephesus until Pentecost.” 1 Cor.16:8.

The feast of Trumpet was commemorated by blowing of the shofars (Trumpets); this was to announce the coming of the great feast of Tabernacles. Some Sabbath keepers argue that this feast should be kept to announce the coming of the great King of Kings. In the New Testament, it’s evident that the coming of Christ will be accompanied by the blowing of trumpets from angels and arch angels.

For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first:” 1 Thes. 4:16

Some argue that this feast should not be kept as it was in Old dispensation to announce the feast of gatherings which was done away with at the cross.

The feast of atonement was commemorated by fasting; this is still practiced by some groups of the Church of God category. Those keeping this feast argue that even apostle Paul observed it years after the atoning blood of Messiah was shed;

Now when much time was spent, and when sailing was now dangerous, because the fast was now already past, Paul admonished them,” Acts 27:9.

 Some commemorate this feast but without fasting, while others are bitter critics of this feast. The critics argue that Jesus atoned for our sins and thus we don’t need to wait for a specific day to pray for atonement.

The feast of Tabernacle is a commemoration for ingathering; many who keep this feast have reasons to believe that the coming of Jesus Christ will be around this period. They argue that because this feast was for general gatherings, the second coming of Messiah will be a general judgment to the world and thus it’s symbolically illustrated by this feast. They argue that even Jesus Himself kept this feast during His earthly ministry;

Now about the midst of the feast Jesus went up into the temple, and taught.” John 7:14.

 Those against it argue that this feast has no significance in the current dispensation as its purpose was in the Old covenant and thus need not to be observed.

To the Seventh Day Adventist, they observe something that resembles this feast, though it’s for a local church to decide when to keep it. They usually gather together and spread the word during that time which is commonly known as ‘Makambi’ in Kenya. Most SDA churches hold it between August and September each year. It’s good to note that they don’t associate this with the Biblical feast of tabernacle thou the name ‘Makambi’ is a Swahili name for ‘Tabernacles’.

The feast of Purim, this was a celebration commemorated by the children of Israel in remembrance of their victory over their enemies. It is a two day (three day in some parts) celebration where one day is for fasting, the other one for exchanging gifts. Many of the Church of God groups don’t keep this feast, as they consider it a commemoration solely for the children of Israel and not the church. Some do keep it and advocate for its observance. Those who keep this feast argue that; was it not for this great redemption, the children of Israel, would have been destroyed and thus no salvation in the world.

“And Mordecai wrote these things, and sent letters unto all the Jews that were in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus, both nigh and far,
To stablish this among them, that they should keep the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and the fifteenth day of the same, yearly,” Esther 9:20, 21.

The feast of Hannukah is unheard of in many Sabbath keeping groups; it’s celebrated near the time when Sunday keeping churches celebrates Christmas. A few groups that are affiliated to the Jews do keep the feast. It’s a seven day celebration where they gather to worship and light lamps. They commemorate the days of purification of the temple where Judah Maccabbees and others had little oil to light during the purification process but amazingly the oil lasted till the purification                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  was over. In some areas people gives testimonies of how little or no oil in their lambs lasted for a very long time with their lamps on.


The Church of God 7th Day in her history was not a feast keeping organization. Even before the division between Church of God 7th Day and Seventh Day Adventist, the feast issue was controversial and elder James White (Husband to Ellen G. White) wrote an article in The Present Truth of 1849 rejecting the observance of feast days. The issue of feasts in available histories so far, was first introduced in the Church of God 7Th Day by an independent minister by the name G.G.Ruppert. It’s said that Mr. Ruppert used to keep the feasts and at times used to write articles in the church paper of the time (Bible Advocate, of May, June and July 1913) advocating for the feasts observance.

In 1916, G.W.Sarber from Knox, Indiana wrote in the Bible Advocate supporting the annual holydays.

The Church of God 7th Day, in early years of 1860-1930’s never advocated for the observance of the feasts, though they celebrated the Lord’s Supper without the feasts of unleavened bread on eve of 14th of Nisan. In 1917, A.N.Dugger (the famous leader of the church in the 20th century) wrote an article ‘What the Church of God Believe and Why?”, in Article 21 he stated that the commandments nailed to the cross included only animal sacrifices, and yearly Sabbath days that were governed by the day of the month, new moons, feasts and other holydays, referring to Ephesians 2:15, Hebrews 9:10-12.

According to Church of God historian, Richard Nickels, “the holydays were to be latent issue within the Church of God, accepted by some, but rejected by many. Though the official church position was against them, some supporters of the Church of God continued to believe and keep them, yet still maintaining Church of God membership.”

It was latter through elder Herbert W. Armstrong who again started preaching and advocating for the observance of feasts in our latter day histories. Elder Armstrong came out strongly, preaching and publishing articles supporting the observance of the feasts in today’s church. He explained the meaning of each feast in relation to today’s church and new covenant. The Church of God was not ready to accept his teachings and doctrines of which feasts was just one of the many, this led him to break from the Church of God and started his own congregation which was latter known as Worldwide Church of God. This in fact explains why all churches that broke from Worldwide Church of God keep the feasts.

It happened that in 1950’s elder A.N.Dugger migrated from America to settle permanently in Jerusalem, Israel. While in Israel, it’s evident that elder A.N.Dugger started keeping and observing this feast days. Though he kept them, he never came out strongly to preach their observance by other people, this is apparent from the way he used to answer questions from his followers who wanted to know if they too should keep the feasts. One of his answers was, “….feasts and holydays of Israel are not like the gentile ones, as the Israelites celebrates and commemorates the mighty redemption from the Almighty. The question here should not be if we must keep them, but the question should be, will the Heavenly Father be happy with me if I join His children in celebrating His mighty works?” From such answers, elder Dugger left many of his followers in a great tussle of whether to or not to observe the feasts and to date many of his followers still argue over the holydays.


But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head uncovered dishonoureth her head: for that is even all one as if she were shaven. For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered.” 1 Cor. 11:5, 6.

The issue of head (read hair) covering among Sabbath keepers is not a contentious issue in most European churches, but in African churches it is. Churches of God affiliated to A.N.Dugger work from Jerusalem, take this as a very serious issue and part of their verbal doctrines. Those churches affiliated to America don’t see head covering as a contentious issue.

Those Churches that take this as part of their verbal doctrine, argue that Apostle Paul pointed out clearly that women should cover their head with a veil, their argument can be expressed well with the following extract from Adam’s Clarke Commentary;

“…………………….. The only difference marked by the apostle was, the man had his head uncovered, because he was the representative of Christ; the woman had hers covered, because she was placed by the order of God in a state of subjection to the man, and because it was a custom, both among the Greeks and Romans, and among the Jews an express law, that no woman should be seen abroad without a veil.  This was, and is, a common custom through all the east, and none but public prostitutes go without veils.  And if a woman should appear in public without a veil, she would dishonour her head-her husband.  And she must appear like to those women who had their hair shorn off as the punishment of whoredom, or adultery.

  Tacitus informs us, Germ. 19, that, considering the greatness of the population, adulteries were very rare among the Germans; and when any woman was found guilty she was punished in the following way: accisis crinibus, nudatam coram propinquis expellit domo maritus; "having cut off her hair, and stripped her before her relatives, her husband turned her out of doors."  And we know that the woman suspected of adultery was ordered by the law of Moses to be stripped of her veil, Nu 5:18.  Women reduced to a state of servitude, or slavery, had their hair cut off: so we learn from Achilles Tatius.  Clitophon says, concerning Leucippe, who was reduced to a state of slavery: pepratai, dedouleuken, ghn eskaqen, sesulhtai thv kefalhv to kallov, thn kouran orav. lib. viii. cap. 6, "she was sold for a slave, she dug in the ground, and her hair being shorn off, her head was deprived of its ornament," &c.  It was also the custom among the Greeks to cut off their hair in time of mourning.  See Euripides in Alcest., ver. 426.  Admetus, ordering a common mourning for his wife Alcestis, says: penyov gunaikov thv de koinousyai lego, koura xurhkei kai melampeplw stolh.  "I order a general mourning for this woman! let the hair be shorn off, and a black garment put on."  Propriety and decency of conduct are the points which the apostle seems to have more especially in view.  As a woman who dresses loosely or fantastically, even in the present day, is considered a disgrace to her husband, because suspected to be not very sound in her morals; so in those ancient times, a woman appearing without a veil would be considered in the same light.

For if the woman be not covered] If she will not wear a veil in the public assemblies, let her be shorn-let her carry a public badge of infamy: but if it be a shame-if to be shorn or shaven would appear, as it must, a badge of infamy, then let her be covered-let her by all means wear a veil. …………………………..”

In the above extract, Adam’s Clarke explains verses 5 and 6 of Corinthians 11 as if Paul was very specific with his ordinance. Those churches that see this as doctrine, argue that Paul was generally speaking to The Church of God and thus every woman in the church should wear a veil.

Those who don’t veil, argue differently depending on the way the debate will go. There are those who argue as illustrated below by an extract from Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary;

Dishonoureth ... head--in that she acts against the divine ordinance and the modest propriety that becomes her: in putting away the veil, she puts away the badge of her subjection to man, which is her true "honor"; for through him it connects her with Christ, the head of the man.  Moreover, as the head-covering was the emblem of maiden modesty before man (Gen. 24:65), and conjugal chastity (Gen. 20:16); so, to uncover the head indicated withdrawal from the power of the husband, whence a suspected wife had her head uncovered by the priest (Nu 5:18). ALFORD takes "her head" to be man, her symbolical, not her literal head; but as it is literal in the former clause, it must be so in the latter one.

    all one as if ... shaven--As woman's hair is given her by nature, as her covering (1Co 11:15), to cut it off like a man, all admit, would be indecorous: therefore, to put away the head-covering, too, like a man, would be similarly indecorous. It is natural to her to have long hair for her covering: she ought, therefore, to add the other (the wearing of a head-covering) to show that she does of her own will that which nature itself teaches she ought to do, in token of her subjection to man.”

Still there are those who argue that the kind of covering that Apostle Paul talked about wasn’t with the veils but the hair. This group argues that the hair given to a woman is supposed to be for covering and to make their case strong they quote verse 15;

But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her: for her hair is given her for a covering.

Using the above quoted verse, this group advocates that women should not veil their head, but keep long hair which is her glory.

In Africa, a member of the Church of God 7Th Day that believes in head covering, will find it difficult to fellowship with those who don’t cover as to him/her, those who don’t cover are still practicing Babylonian customs and thus not saved. The one that doesn’t cover her head considers those who veil as still in the primitive age and still in bondage that need to be broken.

While The Church of God 7th Day struggle with the issue of head covering, to the Seventh Day Adventist, this is non essential point of doctrine. In any congregation of the SDA, women are free to do what they want with their head. Free to cover, shave, plait etc.


Fire lighting/cooking on the Sabbath.

Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations upon the Sabbath dayExodus 35:3.

“No fire is to be lighted in any of your houses on the Sabbath day.” (BBE)

The above quoted verse has been used differently for the individual or group satisfaction. Some Sabbath keepers believe that the verse is very clear and needs no interpretation. They argue that God’s intention was just that, ‘not to kindle fire on the Sabbath’ this group also quotes Exodus 16:23;

And he said unto them, This is that which the LORD hath said, Tomorrow is the rest of the holy Sabbath unto the LORD: bake that which ye will bake today, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.”

“Then he said to them, "This is what the LORD has said: 'Tomorrow is a Sabbath rest, a holy Sabbath to the LORD. Bake what you will bake today, and boil what you will boil; and lay up for yourselves all that remains, to be kept until morning.'" (NKJV)

According to Easton’s 1897 Bible Dictionary, the word ‘seethe’ is translated as ‘to boil’ thus what the above verse clearly indicates is that the Israelites were to do all their baking and boiling on the sixth day (Friday). The reason for doing all this on Friday was because on the Sabbath day, no fire was to be lighted and thus no cooking took place.

Sabbath keepers who believe the above interpretation, usually prepares their food on Friday’s before the beginning of Sabbath (sunset) and preserve the food for the Sabbath. On Sabbath, they usually don’t kindle any fire in their habitations.

This issue was taken by some of those affiliated to Jerusalem (A.N.Dugger), and when answering a question about the issue elder A.N.Dugger advocated for all cooking to be done on Fridays, but also noted that it’s not a sin to kindle fire on Sabbath.

Seventh Day Adventist and other Church of God groups, have no problem with cooking on Sabbath. To them, verses quoted above were specifically for Israelites and for a specific period and because the Saviour came, they were delivered from such laws. They argue that anything that was not included in the fourth commandment should not be practiced in relation to observing Sabbath. This is what the fourth commandment says;

Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.” Exodus 20:8-11.

This group argues that not cooking on the Sabbath was something that was contained in the book and Christ came to deliver us from the curse of what was contained in the book. They use extracts from New Testament to argue their case as follows;

At that time Jesus went on the Sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were a hungred, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat.” Matt 12:1

And he saith unto them, Is it lawful to do good on the Sabbath days, or to do evil? to save life, or to kill? But they held their peace.” Mark 3:4

There are many verses that can be quoted but space and time can not permit.

Still others are of a view that the reason behind forbidding of fire lighting on the Sabbath, was that during those times (Old Testament). Lighting a fire was a very long process and a laborious work. They argue that using an electric cooker and gas can not be compared to the laborious work of those days. To them lighting an electric/gas cooker is okay on the Sabbath.

The issue of kindling fire on Sabbath day has led to many divisions and even excommunications among Sabbath keepers. Those who don’t kindle fire on Sabbath feels that those who kindle don’t keep the Sabbath day the right way and thus needs to covert.

·        Buying/Selling on the Sabbath.
And if the people of the land bring ware or any victuals on the Sabbath day to sell, that we would not buy it of them on the Sabbath, or on the holy day: and that we would leave the seventh year, and the exaction of every debt.” Nehemiah 10:31.

In those days saw I in Judah some treading wine presses on the Sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and lading asses; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all manner of burdens, which they brought into Jerusalem on the Sabbath day: and I testified against them in the day wherein they sold victuals. There dwelt men of Tyre also therein, which brought fish, and all manner of ware, and sold on the Sabbath unto the children of Judah, and in Jerusalem. Then I contended with the nobles of Judah, and said unto them, What evil thing is this that ye do, and profane the Sabbath day? Did not your fathers thus, and did not our God bring all this evil upon us, and upon this city? yet ye bring more wrath upon Israel by profaning the Sabbath. And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the Sabbath, I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the Sabbath: and some of my servants set I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the Sabbath day.” Nehemiah 13:15-19.

The above given verses from the book of Nehemiah have been another source of contention and division in the Sabbath keeping family.

There are those who read and follow what is written in those verses. On Sabbath no business transaction should be entered into. No buying, no selling, no talking of business in any form. To this group, any mention of business transaction is contrary to the fourth commandment. The words of God to prophet Isaiah seem to give them support;

If thou turn away thy foot from the Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day; and call the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the LORD, honourable; and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own wordsIsaiah 58:13.

To this group, Sabbath is not a day to speak anything that is of personal gain or anything that brings worldly pleasure. Thus to them it’s wrong to buy, sell, go for entertainment, watch or participate in games, etc. Sabbath is meant for total rest (Unless you’re trekking towards the place of worship) and worship.

There are groups that believe that, if a business deal is for the sake of the gospel then its okay with them. This group comprises those who will pay a public vehicle transport in order to reach their places of worship. Some might not have a problem with buying something to eat on the Sabbath day so long as it’s not for ones selfish gain. They argue that what prophet Isaiah wrote was ‘own pleasure’ and thus anything done because of the gospel on the Sabbath day is okay and justified.

Other groups will never enter into any business transaction whatsoever. They rather walk an exhausting distance to their places of worship rather than pay a fare on the Sabbath day. To this group, anyone who buys or sells on the Sabbath day has violated the fourth commandment and thus is not a believer.

To others still, the Sabbath is holy and should be kept according to the words of the fourth commandments. They believe that in the fourth commandments nothing has been said against buying and selling. This group has no problem in buying and at times selling on the Sabbath day. They argue that Sabbath keeping in the new dispensation should not be tied upon the old dispensation.


A visit to different Sabbath keeping groups and one will automatically realize this difference. In the Seventh Day Adventist church, dreams are usually not given a chance neither is their specific time set aside for visions. SDA believes that their prophetess Ellen G. White gave lots of prophecies as regards to the present times and relates most of the things happening to her prophecies.

And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellow servant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.” Revelation 19:10.

To Seventh Day Adventists the above verse of Revelation was fulfilled by their prophetess Ellen G. White. Thus the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy meaning that the visions and dreams of Ellen White is the testimony of Jesus and thus one has to believe in the visions for him/her to escape the coming condemnation.

Point 18 of the fundamental beliefs of Seventh Day Adventist’s states;

“One of the gifts of the Holy Spirit is prophecy. This gift is an identifying mark of the remnant church and was manifested in the ministry of Ellen. G. White. As the Lord's messenger, her writings are a continuing and authoritative source of truth which provide for the church comfort, guidance, instruction, and correction. They also make clear that the Bible is the standard by which all teaching and experience must be tested. (Joel 2:28, 29; Acts 2:14-21; Heb. 1:1-3; Rev. 12:17; 19:10.)”

Ellen G. White wrote a number of books on various subjects and topics of interest. To this date, SDA still esteem her visions and one of their mark of discipleship is to take an oath that one believes in the spirit of prophecies as given to Ellen G. White.

It’s of interest to note that Ellen White’s visions and prophecies were one of the main reasons for the divisions that occurred in 1860’s between SDA and COG. While SDA accepted without question the visions and prophecies of Ellen G. White, the Church of God refused to accept any of the visions and questioned their origin. This led to a fallout and ever since Church of God has maintained her position as regards to Ellen White’s visions and dreams.

On the other side, many Churches of God especially in Kenya though questions and have refused to accept Ellen G. White visions and prophecies, they believe in dreams and visions. These churches have set aside some time especially in the morning of each Sabbath school for dreams and visions. It’s a routine that each Sabbath morning a time is given for whoever has a dream or a vision to narrate to the congregation. Job 33:14-16 is of importance to them;

For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not. In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed; Then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instruction,”

What has become a challenge to many of these groups is the fact that many of these dreams and visions are never interpreted at all. They are just given like a formality and nothing serious ever happens as the meaning is never known.

To members of such groups, a Sabbath minus dreams and visions is like God is silent towards them and thus a clear indication that they need to cleanse themselves or repent for the spirit of the Lord to manifest himself through dreams. (We recommend our booklet on dreams for a clear understanding of this issue)

Other Sabbath keeping groups, especially those ones affiliated to USA, dreams and visions are non issue. To these groups, no time is given for such thing in their Sabbath programmes. They neither believe in dreams nor visions apart from what the Bible has documented.

Visions and dreams are a passionate issue to some members and to some extent groups. When a member who believes in them goes to a church that does not believe in them. Then it becomes a tall order to him/her. Some takes it that a Sabbath is not complete without time for dreams and visions. This group will take those who don’t have time for dreams and visions as of lower spiritual growth while those with many dreams and visions as spiritual people. Thus one who believes in dreams and visions will find it difficult to attend a service in a church that doesn’t believe in them.

A Church of God member anywhere in the world will find it difficult to attend a Sabbath service in a Seventh Day Adventist Church. The reason being that in SDA, Ellen G. White books and materials are quoted at times even more than the Bible. A preacher who quotes more of her materials is regarded as a powerful man/woman of God and his/her sermon is usually esteemed than the one who don’t.

A member of a different Sabbath keeping organization will find it hard to belief the visions and dreams of Ellen G. White and thus difficult for him/her to rhyme with SDA. This especially is made worse by the fact that before one is baptized in the Seventh Day Adventist church has to take an oath and one of the items is the belief in the spirit of prophecy as given by God through the hand of Ellen G. White.

To the other Sabbath keepers allover the world, Revelation 19:10 does not point to Ellen G. White at all. They argue that to understand better verse 10, one need to read other verses from verse 1-10. They argue that verse 10 was a product of Apostle John wanting to bow before the Angel and thus the Angel stopping him, uttered those words. In reality what the Angel wanted to show was that, the apostle and all those who carry the message of salvation to the world (i.e. the testimony of Jesus) and the Angel who carried the book of Revelation to John (i.e. the spirit of prophecy) were all equal before God and none should bow before the other save before God.


Trinity is a popular belief in the Christian world, is so popular to the extent that many usually assumes that all Christians/Bible believing people believe in it.

The word trinity itself is not found in the whole Bible. The fact that it’s not in the Bible, has not made Christians doubt its origin. To many Christians it makes a lot of sense to have the three God’s i.e God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit an the three be one.

In the Bible there is a shortage of verses that tend to support this doctrine. Thus those who believe in it give a quotation of any verse that mentions the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit;

The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen2 Cor. 13:14.

“For through him [Jesus] we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.” Eph.2:18 {emphasis added}.

Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied.” 1 Pet.1:2

Now the big headache to these proponents is that, all the verses save one, does not support the belief that the three are one i.e. Trinity.

The only verse that tends to support the Trinity doctrine and which Trinity believers rest their case is the book of 1st John 5:7

For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.”

Thus trinity means three in one!

In Sabbath keeping churches, many studies have been done over this issue and still many groups have not accepted trinity as a doctrine or Biblical. To these groups, the Holy Spirit is the power of God, and not a separate personality. To them Jesus is not God the son but the son of God. They argue that 1st John 5:7 was added latter but was not in the original manuscript of the scriptures. To prove their case, they use King James Version 1611 Edition to show that 1st John 5:7 was added latter on. Thus this verse was a product of corrupt scribes who were desperate to insert the trinity doctrine in the Bible.

On baptism, all groups that rejects the trinity doctrine, baptizes in the name of Jesus Christ. The following scriptures are quoted as proof that even the apostles did the same;

Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.” Acts 2:38.

And he commanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord. Then prayed they him to tarry certain days.” Acts 10:38

As regards Matthew 28:19;

Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost

These groups argue that;

·        That Jesus commanded them to baptize in the NAME (singular) and not names (plural).
·        That Father, son and Holy Spirit are not names but titles. Asking a child the name of his father, the child can’t say that ‘he is called father!’
·        That one name carry’s the Heavenly Father’s name, has the sons and possesses the power of the Holy Spirit (John 5:43).
·        That the name Jesus Christ is the only name above all names through which we are saved in. (Acts 4:12, John 1:12)
·        That at no given time did the apostles baptized in the name of the father, son and Holy Spirit.
·        That at no time did the apostles argue amongst themselves for not following Jesus command as regards to the baptism, though they baptized in the name of Jesus Christ.

Thus to these groups, trinity is unbiblical and should not be accepted by Bible believing Christians.

Seventh Day Adventist on the other hand, at first didn’t believe in the trinity as proved by their 1872 and 1889 “synopsis of our faith”. But they later incorporated the trinity idea in their doctrine just like the mainstream religions. In 1931 Yearbook issued a revised point of their beliefs and Trinity was one of them. Though they may have adopted this doctrine much earlier than 1931, they teach it and even have a logo that signifies the trinity.

Messianic Jewish congregations and Seventh Day Baptist Church also affirm the Trinity doctrine in their fundamental beliefs. Am short of historical materials to exactly know when the two groups started believing in Trinity. Thus it is not possible to ascertain when the doctrine was adopted by the two groups.

To other Sabbath keepers, their position on this issue has changed over time. At first all Churches of God rejected the idea of God being a family of three, but some have changed their position. This includes General Conference of The Church of God 7th day (Denver group) and the many offshoot of Worldwide Church of God. To them, they have come to a point of accepting that God is a family currently comprising of two, Father and Son, but they have firmly rejected that Holy Spirit is part of this family. They still hold to their earlier arguments that Holy Spirit is the power of God and not a personality. To ex Worldwide Churches of God, human beings are headed to be part of this family.

Now, the problem is that a Sabbath keeper who rejects trinity in totality can never accept any sacrifices (prayers, baptism etc) done in the name of Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Those who believe in trinity on the other hand, will want to do “everything” in the trinity. Thus it becomes uncomfortable for one who rejects trinity to attend a service in a trinity believing group and vice versa.

Our Opinion on 1st John 5:7.

It’s of interest that we register our opinion on the only verse in the whole Bible that seems to suggest the trinity, 1st John 5:7, 8.

The portion of the passage, in 1Joh 5:7, 8, whose genuineness is disputed, is underlined in the following quotation, as it stands in the common editions of the New Testament:

"For there are three that bear record [in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. And there are three that bear witness in earth,] the Spirit, and the water, and the blood; and these three agree in one."

As said somewhere in this book, in hermeneutics one must try to capture the intent of the verse, the settings and the subject. Let’s capture what earlier verse is all about, verses 5 is like presenting a question which is answered that the only person that can overcome the world is the one that believes that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. Verse 6 informs us that Jesus came by water and blood and that the Spirit is the one that bears witness to the fact that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.

Verses 5 and 6 must play a role in assessing the type of message that John is passing out. An examination of the two verses has revealed that the argument is whether Jesus Christ is the Son of God. Verses 6 have already informed us that Jesus came by water and blood and that the Spirit bears witness.

Now we expect verse 7 to have the continuity of the message, i.e. who bears witness to the fact that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. Now it comes out clearly that three bears witness to the fact that Jesus is the Son of God. This three are, suddenly our message is broken and the words in ‘heaven, Father, Son, Holy Spirit and in earth’ inserted. Remember our message from verse 5, we had nothing like ‘heaven’, ‘earth’, ‘Father’. The message has been about three items that bears witness to the fact that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. But suddenly we are introduced to another ‘three that bears witness in heaven’. Surely anyone without biasness can agree that the continuity of the message has been broken.

Another setback as why the above should not be used to defend Trinity doctrine is that early Greek Church Fathers never used it or even quoted in their writings. The fact that they never used it and some of them believed in Trinity proves that they also had their own reservations against the verse.

As already said, not only King James Version 1611, which labels the verse as a latter addition, but it also wanting in earlier Greek manuscripts. Earliest versions of the Bible never included the additional words in that verse. 

According to Albert Berne in his commentary, the added part of the verses cannot be genuine for the following reasons;

a)     It does not contribute to advance what the apostle is saying, but breaks the thread of his argument entirely.
b)    The language is not such as John would use. John uses the term Logos, or Word, o logov John 1:1, 12, 1 John 1:1, but it’s never in this form, ‘The Father, and the Word’.

Other Commentaries also agree on this that the words in the verses were a latter added, but originally were not the words form John.

If the disputed passage, therefore, be omitted, the whole passage will read,

"For there are three that bear record, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood; and these three agree in one."

Don’t you see that by omitting the added words, now there is continuity of the message? Try and read now from verse 5 to verse seven and make sure you omit the added words.


The issue of Sacred Names has caused remarkable divisions among Sabbath keepers. It’s difficult to trace the origin of the tussles between the Sacred Names. Just like Seventh Day Adventists, The Church of God 7Th Day, had no problem with this issue. A time came when some people thought that it was important to have the correct and right names of the Heavenly Father and His son. This group started using and advocating as doctrine the use of Hebrew Names over Greek ones.

To those who advocate the doctrine of sacred names, the use of any other name apart from the Hebrew names is sin! Some argue that a name can not and will never be translated, they argue that a name in any language remains the same in the next language. They strive to show that the word Jesus was translated from the Greek one meaning ‘fish’ and that God is a pagan name meaning an idol.

And in all things that I have said unto you be circumspect: and make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth.” Ex 23:13.

The above verse is the pillar of their arguments, to those who follow the sacred names doctrine, the names of Jesus Christ, God and Lord must never be mentioned by those who are saved. Just the mentioning of other names apart from the Hebrew ones will be sinful. Many of the sacred names groups have their own Bibles which have the Hebrew names rather than the Greek ones.

These sacred name groups are many and it seems they don’t agree on the correct version of the names to use. There are those who argue that the correct names are Yahweh, Yahshua and Messiah, while others say they are Yahveh, Yeshua and Messiah, Yahuwah and Yahuwashuwah still others go for Yahuah, Yahoshua, Maschiach.

Some other Sabbath keeping groups acknowledge that God is not the correct name of the Heavenly Father but argue that it’s wrong and disrespect for one to use the name ‘Yahweh.’ They argue that even a child respect his male parent by calling him, ‘father’ but not his real name.

To some still the name, ‘Yahweh’ is too holy to mention. They argue that the name ‘Yahweh’ in Old Testament used to be mentioned only during the feast of atonement. Thus to them, the name should never be mentioned every now and then, and quotes;

Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.” Exodus 20:7

Majority of Sabbath keepers have no issue with Hebrew names. Though they accept that YHWH, Yahshua and Messiah are Hebrew names of the Heavenly father and the son, they see no offence in using the Greek version. To them whether one uses the Hebrew or Greek version, they all refer to the same beings.

Sacred Name Movement History

The Sacred Name Movement began in the 1930's among the Church of God 7th Day members who pondered the question of Proverbs 30:4, "What is His name and His Son's name if you can tell?"
Noteworthy of the early pioneers of the sacred name persuasion in the 1930's were John Briggs, Paul Penn, Joseph Owsin, William Bishop, Larue Cessna, Ralph Kinney (who had a radio broadcast at that time), Angelo B. Traina, Clarence O. Dodd, William Bodine of Arkansas, L.D. Snow of Oklahoma, and James Roley of Ohio. Researching commentaries, dictionaries, encyclopedias and various reference books, these Bible students found the Heavenly Father's name represented by the Hebrew Tetragrammaton's four letters were transliterated in various ways such as YHWH, YHVH, IAUE, JHVH, JHWH, but pronounced Yahweh, Yahveh, Yahueh, Yahvah, Jehovah, Jahahveh, and Jahweh.

Elder Clarence O. Dodd began publishing The Faith magazine in March of 1937 in which he promoted the keeping of the feast days of Leviticus 23. He had been asked to resign from the Church of God, 7th Day with headquarters in Salem, West Virginia, of which he was secretary-treasurer. His introduction and teaching of the feast days brought about his dismissal.

The following filler article Elder Dodd placed in The Faith magazine created a stir of interest: "It is interesting that throughout His life, Jesus Christ never heard Himself called by that name.‘Jesus' was the Greek word for the Hebrew 'Joshua' or 'Jeshua;' and 'Christ' or 'Christus' was the Greek word for 'Messiah' or 'Redeemer,' page 241, Man's Great Adventure, by Edwin W. Pahlow, professor of history, Ohio State University." In October 1938 The Faith magazine carried an article by A. B. Traina, "What is His Son's Name?" in which he used Jahovah for the Father and Jah-hoshua for the Son. Included in this issue was an article by Wm. Bishop and John Briggs, "The King James Version Regarding Sacred Names." Combining various resource books, they showed the various forms in English for the four Hebrew letters of the Tetragrammaton such as IHVH, JHVH, JHWH, YHVH, YHWH, JAHAVEH, JAHAVEH, JAHVAH, JAHVE, JAHVEH, YAHVE, YAHVEH, YAHWE, YAHWEH, etc. Apparently the "Kadesh Name Society," of Detroit, Michigan, authored this article, having started as early as 1936.

It is interesting to see Elder Dodd's growth in knowledge as he first began to use the popular hybrid but erroneous "Jehovah." Upon discovering that Jehovah was a philological monstrosity, he then used Jahweh. When he learned that there never was (nor is there now), a letter J in the Hebrew or Greek, he began using Yahvah. Finally, upon further research, he ascertained the best spelling was Yahweh.

Now thoroughly convinced of the name, in November of 1941 Elder Dodd placed the names of Yahweh and Yahshua in the masthead of The Faith magazine, and stated that in referring to the Father and the Son, the titles Lord, G-d, and Jes-s Christ would no longer appear in his publication. The sound teaching of Elder Dodd’s presentation of Bible truth persuaded many.

The first charter in the Sacred Name Movement was issued in Michigan on July 11, 1939 to the Assembly of YHVH. Not being certain of the correct name at the time, the organization decided to include YHWH, YHVH, JHVH, and also Yahweh, Yahvah, Yahveh in their application. The organizers evidently felt they would include these forms and names and settle on the correct and proper form when Yahweh provided proof for the correct name.

Malachi prophesied that the last message to be given to mankind is the name of Yahweh and His Son Yahshua. Sabbath-observing groups are proclaiming this message at the end of the age. The Assembly of Yahweh, Eaton Rapids, Michigan, began with a Bible study class meeting in a private home in the late 1920's in which the Sabbath and the Commandments were stressed. Sister Smith felt moved to establish a Camp of Yah where during the early 1940's the feast days were observed for many years. Eventually the Eaton Rapids Assembly acquired the present property at Gunnell Road. About 1969 they took over the publication of The Faith magazine, which seemingly moved around a bit following the death of Elder Dodd. Pastor Sam Graham and George Kinney continue with the magazine to this day.

Elder Angelo B. Traina published a pamphlet called "The Deed" in 1940 in which he used the holy name, Yahweh. In 1950 he published the Sacred Name New Testament, and in 1963 the complete the Holy Name Bible, based on the King James Version. He started the Scripture Research Association, 14410 S. Springfield Road, Brandywine, Maryland 20613, for the distribution of the Holy Name Bibles. The Bibles are no longer available from Maryland today. Elder Traina died in 1971, in his 82nd year. His wife, Ida Mae, ran a nursing home to provide for their family while Elder Traina labored in the vineyard. She passed away 11 years later.

In the early 1960's, Jacob O. Meyer became interested in the sacred name. With his wife Ruth, the family drove to Maryland almost weekly to learn and study with Elder Traina, continuing for almost a year. His move to Idaho in 1964 to be associate editor with Elder Earl Boyd in publishing the magazine The Sacred Name Herald was short-lived. He also visited William Barton in California, but they did not agree doctrinally. After keeping the Feast of Tabernacles in Turner, Oregon, Elder Jacob O Meyer returned with his family to Bethel, Pennsylvania. He apparently kept Tabernacles in Nevada, Missouri, in 1965 and was ordained into the Ministry by several Elders (Probably elders Joseph Owsen, Paul Penn, Lloyd Parry).

During the first weekend of February of 1966, Elder Jacob O. Meyer began broadcasting over WBMD, Baltimore, Maryland, and soon added other stations. Waterloo, Iowa’s KXEL radio station brought in the Donald Mansager family. Both he and his wife were baptized in 1968 at the Feast of Tabernacles gathering with brethren of the Holt Michigan Assembly. With the help and blessings of the Assembly of Yahweh of Morton, Pennsylvania, Elder Jacob O. Meyer began his Assemblies of Yahweh of Bethel, Pennsylvania.

Growth continued and the radio broadcast expanded bringing more people in contact with the truth of the sacred name. His organization, The Assemblies of Yahweh, was chartered in 1969 at the urging of brethren from Pittsburgh. Brethren felt the farmhouse where taped broadcasts were being done from the kitchen table were woefully inadequate. Yahweh's work needed room to grow, and Elder Donald Mansager urged acquisition of the Whitehall Motel during the Feast of Tabernacles in 1970 at Brightbill's grove in Bethel, Pennsylvania.

Before the Feast came to an end, sufficient pledges were made for the down payment to secure the motel as a base for meetings and offices. Elder Jacob O. Meyer's reluctance to purchase the Whitehall Motel was overcome by Bro. Paul Penn (a converted Jew) who noted the motel's construction was similar to a Hebrew dalet, which is the letter D, meaning "door." Bro. Penn convinced Elder Jacob O. Meyer this was the door for a greater work proclaiming Yahweh's name. The contract to purchase the motel was signed early the next year and the Meyer family moved into the owner's quarters and lobby, and remodeling began. Later the adjacent Spayd's Motel was for sale, and again, Elder Mansager sent letters urging brethren to help purchase this motel also. Thus, adequate space was assured for setting up a viable working ministry which included a meeting hall, printing and radio broadcasts, and eventually television.

The Meyer family soon bought a house in Bethel, and moved from the motel lobby and in a short time both motels were entirely utilized by the Assemblies of Yahweh for the growing outreach from Bethel. Administration differences brought about a separation among some of the elders.

In March of 1980 Elder Mansager, along with several other elders and deacons, resigned from their association with the Bethel group and later that year formed Yahweh's Assembly in Messiah (YAIM) at Rocheport, Missouri. At the Feast of Tabernacles that year, at the recommendation of the assembled brethren, additional elders were accepted into YAIM. Initially, the new organization began in Olathe, Kansas, when some of the brethren insisted we continue to hold meetings and send out cassette tapes of these meetings.

At the Feast of Tabernacles of 1980 at Blackwater, Missouri, future growth and outreach were discussed. In May of 1981, the defunct Lewis and Clark campground at Rocheport, Missouri, was purchased and Yahweh's Assembly in Messiah had a home. Because three of the elders had been on Bethel's Ministerial Board, the teachings are substantially the same, as they had helped establish Bethel's "Statement of Doctrine." Another separation was forced upon the Rocheport group when two leaders of the Rocheport group admitted to adultery, but refused to step down from the ministry. Such behavior is not acceptable according to Yahweh's word.

At the 1988 Feast of Tabernacles, Yahweh's New Covenant Assembly (YNCA) came into being with Elders Ralph Henrie, Dennis Bitterman, Donald Mansager, and Roger Meyer, along with a number of dedicated brethren. Eugene Rodgers was anointed an elder during this feast. YNCA purchased land three miles west of Kingdom City, MO on the north service road of I-70, 17 miles east of Columbia and built a main office and meeting hall. A billboard was built to show its location on Interstate 70. Several elders, along with other lay members, left for a variety of doctrinal reasons and at different times. There have even been divisions among those who left. At the beginning of 2007, Yahweh's Assembly in Yahshua (YAIY) came into existence with Elders Donald Mansager, Eugene Rodgers and Roger Meyer. In a short period of time David Brett, Dick Vaow and John Fisher were anointed as elders. YAIY occupies the same land and buildings as YNCA did.

The literature and the articles placed in the YAIY Beacon magazine are in full agreement with the YAIY Fundamentals of Faith, which corresponds to the same named study produced by YNCA. Freedom of growth must be allowed for new precepts and deeper understanding. Those seeking truth should be aware that more Scriptural truth will be given just prior to the close of the age. Restitution of all truth at the end of the age is foretold in Acts 3:19-21. Yahweh’s people are to strive to be the Israel of Yahweh, Galatians 6:16.
"The history courtesy of Yahweh's Assembly in Yahshua ("


When was Jesus Christ crucified? All Sunday keeping churches will answer that question affirmatively that it was on Friday. In fact to them such a question does not need any second thought or any research as they sometimes say ‘it’s not rocket science.’

In my first years in an Adventist institution, the college Chaplin called me for a discussion with him as to why I had refused to participate in an event they were planning on the Sabbath. During our discussion, he tried to show me how we as Sabbath keepers are one. ‘We all believe in Jesus Christ, we all believe in the gift of Sabbath, we all believe that Christ died on Friday and rose up early Sunday morning” “No” I replied. The pastor was like ‘what!’ ‘You don’t believe in Christ!’ He yelled.  The discussion went on for two days as from 8 p.m. to past midnight but we didn’t agree on this issue.

From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day.” Matt 16:21

And they shall kill him, and the third day he shall be raised again. And they were exceeding sorry.” Matt 17:23

And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, and to scourge, and to crucify him: and the third day he shall rise again.” Matt 20:19

Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the third day, lest his disciples come by night, and steal him away, and say unto the people, He is risen from the dead: so the last error shall be worse than the first.” Matt 27:64

For he taught his disciples, and said unto them, The Son of man is delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill him; and after that he is killed, he shall rise the third day.” Mark 9:31

And they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him: and the third day he shall rise again.” Mark 10:34

Saying, The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day.” Luke 9:22

And he said unto them, Go ye, and tell that fox, Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures to day and to morrow, and the third day I shall be perfected.” Luke 13:32

And they shall scourge him, and put him to death: and the third day he shall rise again.” Luke 18:33

Saying, the Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.” Luke 24:7

But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to day is the third day since these things were done.” Luke 24:21

And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day:” Luke 24:46

Him God raised up the third day, and shewed him openlyActs 10:40

And the third day we cast out with our own hands the tackling of the ship.” Acts 27:19

And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures1Cor. 15:4

All Bible believing Christians believe that Jesus was crucified died, buried and he rose up from the dead, as the above Scriptures confirm. The major point of controversy is when was he crucified and when did he arose from the dead.

Mainstream Christianity and a few Sabbath keeping churches believe that he was crucified on Friday and arose early Sunday morning. This belief is based on a few biblical verses as follows;

And the women also, which came with him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld the sepulchre, and how his body was laid. And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the Sabbath day according to the commandment.” Luke 23:55, 56.

The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.” John 19:31

Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them. And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.” Luke 24:1, 2.

The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulcher” John 20:1

According to those who advocate for Friday crucification and Sunday resurrection, the verses quoted above and many more that can be given, clearly states that Jesus was crucified on preparation day (and it’s a general knowledge by all) that Friday is the preparation day. And to them John and Luke are very clear on when he rose from the dead i.e. Sunday.
To other Sabbath keeping churches, Jesus Christ was crucified on Wednesday and arose from the dead at the end of the Sabbath (Saturday). This is reached after first establishing how many days he was supposed to remain in the heart of the earth.

For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.” Matt. 12:40

To them, Jesus was supposed to be 3 days and 3 nights in the heart of the earth! A day has got 12 hours and a night has also 12 hours ( ) thus 3 days and 3 nights is a total of 72 hours. To them Jesus Christ was to be 72 hours in the heart of the earth (grave) for him to be Christ.

Now to know where we are supposed to start counting our 72 hours, we need to determine either when he died or when he resurrected. In the bible we have been told when he resurrected;

In the end of the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre. And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it.” Matt. 28:1, 2.

Matthew clearly informs us the exact point of resurrection; he states that it was in the end of the Sabbath as it began to dawn the first day of the week! The Sabbath according to the Bible starts and ends in the evening at sundown (Lev.23:32). Now if Jesus rose in the end of the Sabbath then automatically it was Saturday evening! After knowing when he resurrected, then it becomes easy to know when he was crucified. It’s just a matter of counting 3 days and 3 nights backward from Saturday evening. This brings us to Wednesday evening and thus to this Sabbath keepers, Jesus was crucified on Wednesday evening and was buried the same day as it began to dawn Thursday and he arose on Saturday same time he was buried.

Now you may wonder about the preparation day mentioned earlier. Yes, Jesus was crucified on the preparation day, but the preparation day that is mentioned here is not for the weekly Sabbath (Saturday) but for the Passover;

And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!” John 19:14.

This preparation day for the Passover and other feasts (Lev.23) might come in any day of the week as it depends on the dates of the month. According to Lev. 23, Passover is celebrated as from date 14 to 21 of the first month (Nisan/Abib). 14th Abib is usually the preparation day, as 15th is a Sabbath known as high Sabbath (John 19:31). To this all Bible Scholar’s know that all the yearly Sabbaths that accompanied the feasts usually have preparation days.


The word Kingdom of heaven is used more than 40 times in the four gospel books of the New Testament. All Sabbath keepers believe in the Kingdom of Heaven, the point of difference among them is where this kingdom of heaven will be.

Churches of the Church of God category beliefs that the Kingdom of heaven will descend here on earth and that the righteous will inherit the earth and forever lives therein. To them the following verses and many more that can be given are very clear about this issue;

The heaven, even the heavens, are the LORD'S: but the earth hath he given to the children of men.” Psalms 115:16.

For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD; and there is none else.” Isa 45:18.

The righteous shall never be removed: but the wicked shall not inhabit the earth.”     
 Pr 10:30

And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation; And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth.” Rev. 5:9, 10.

The following are some of the statements from some of the Sabbath keepers that belief in the Kingdom of heaven here on earth;

The Millennium, known as the Thousand Year Reign of Christ on the earth, is the time when the "meek shall inherit the earth." The Saints shall dwell in safety and peace and shall rule the nations and people that are left after the battle of Armageddon.” The Church of God 7th Day.

Messiah Yeshua will return to Jerusalem in glory at the end of this age, to rule forever on David’s throne. He will effect the restoration of Israel in fullness, raise the dead, save all who belong to Him, judge the wicked not written in the Book of Life who are separated from His presence, and accomplish the final Tikkun Olam in which Israel and the nations will be united under Messiah’s rule forever. This restoration will bring everlasting joy for those who belong to Him. They will live forever in an order of mutual blessing and fellowship with God, in a cosmos perfected beyond description.” Messianic Jewish Congregation.

Those who believe in the Kingdom on the earth, argue that although the venue is on earth but it’s the kingdom of heaven i.e. is like heaven on earth. They argue that the earth will know an everlasting peace as explained in Isaiah 11, where even a sucking child shall play in the hole of a snake and the wolf shall dwell with a lamb! To them this is not the earth as we know it at the present.

To many people, the belief of the kingdom being here on earth does not make any sense at all. They compare the current sufferings and try to place a kingdom of God in the midst of these sufferings. They find nothing pleasing at all to have a kingdom of God on earth. They rather not be in the Kingdom if it will be here on earth. The reason and motivation behind their faith is that one day they will dwell in heaven. Thus this fact alone is enough to make a Sabbath keeper not to step foot in a certain congregation.

Seventh Day Adventists use Jeremiah 4:23-26 to prove that earth will be without people as all the sinners will be killed by the appearance of Jesus Christ while all the righteous will be caught up in the sky and then to heaven to live their for 1000 years. After the 1000 years, the righteous will descend together with Jesus and the sinners will be resurrected to judgment.

I beheld the earth, and, lo, it was without form, and void; and the heavens, and they had no light. I beheld the mountains, and, lo, they trembled, and all the hills moved lightly.
I beheld, and, lo, there was no man, and all the birds of the heavens were fled. I beheld, and, lo, the fruitful place was a wilderness, and all the cities thereof were broken down at the presence of the LORD, and by his fierce anger.Jer.4:23-26.

Do ye not know that the saints shall judge the world? and if the world shall be judged by you, are ye unworthy to judge the smallest matters? Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life?” 1 Cor. 6:2, 3.

This is what their fundamental statement on the issue reads;

The millennium is the thousand-year reign of Christ with His saints in heaven between the first and second resurrections. During this time the wicked dead will be judged; the earth will be utterly desolate, without living human inhabitants, but occupied by Satan and his angels. At its close Christ with His saints and the Holy City will descend from heaven to earth. The unrighteous dead will then be resurrected, and with Satan and his angels will surround the city; but fire from God will consume them and cleanse the earth. The universe will thus be freed of sin and sinners forever.”            Seventh Day Adventist.


“The wages of sin is death. But God, who alone is immortal, will grant eternal life to His redeemed. Until that day death is an unconscious state for all people. When Christ, who is our life, appears, the resurrected righteous and the living righteous will be glorified and caught up to meet their Lord. The second resurrection, the resurrection of the unrighteous, will take place a thousand years later.” Seventh Day Adventist.

There are two general resurrections. One is for the righteous and the other is for the wicked. The righteous will be raised to eternal life while the wicked are raised to final judgment and annihilation.” Church of God 7th Day (Salem).

“Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.” John 5:28, 29.

We believe in the resurrections.  We believe that there will be a resurrection to spiritual life of all the faithful saints who have ever lived at Christ's return, and that those faithful saints who are alive at His return will be changed to immortality.   We believe that, following the millennium, there will be a resurrection to physical life during the Great White Throne Judgment to give opportunity for salvation and spiritual birth into the Kingdom of God to all those who have lived down through history, and who have never had the calling to know God.  We believe that those who have not been called by God into His Church at this present time have not lost their opportunity for salvation. We believe that there will be a resurrection of those who are incorrigible to the lake of fire, which is permanent death, not everlasting suffering in hell.” Sabbath Church of God.  

According to Worldwide Church of God and her offshoot which Sabbath Church of God is one of them. There are three types of resurrections;

·        Resurrection of the saints- This group will be resurrected at the start of the millennium (1000 year reign). They will rise to reign with Jesus for 1000 years.

And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection” Revelation 20:4, 5

    But every man in his own order: Messiah the firstfruits; afterward they that are Messiah's at his coming. (1 Cor.15:23 AV)

·        Resurrection of those who had never had an opportunity to hear the salvation truth- this group will be given a chance to hear the message and decide whether to believe and be saved or reject the truth and be casted in the lake of fire.

To Herbert Armstrong, the founder and prophet of the Worldwide Church of God, there is no struggle between God and Satan over the inhabitants of the world. If such a struggle exists then God is being defeated by Satan with a great margin! According to Armstrong and Worldwide Church of God, God is not trying to call everyone to repentance at this time as today is not the only day of salvation. They argue that during the 1000 year (Millennium) reign of Jesus, those people who were never given an opportunity to hear and know the truth will be given a chance. These include those people who lived in areas where salvation message never reached. The following verses are given as proof that God is not in a struggle to save all mankind at this time;

For many are called, but few are chosen.” Matt.22:14.

No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day. It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.” John 6:44, 45.

To them their will be a second resurrection during the millennium, this resurrection will compose of all those who never had an opportunity to know the truth. They will be given a chance to decide their fate just like others who had an opportunity.

·        Resurrection of those who had the opportunity but refused to believe the truth- these are those who had an opportunity, they heard the gospel but opt not to believe in it. They will be resurrected and directly end in the lake of fire.

And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works.” Revelation 20:12

The third and final resurrection according to Worldwide Church of God is that of those who had an opportunity to believe the salvation message but refused. They will be resurrected at the end of the 1000 year reign of Jesus to be judged according to their deeds.

10.                BEARDED MEN.

Just like the case with veiled women, a bearded man is an informal doctrine in some Sabbath keeping family. Am not aware if there is any Sabbath keeping group that has this written as one of their points of beliefs, but some have it as verbal point of belief. They advocate that men were created with God to grow beards at a specific age and thus when one shave the beards he is trying to resemble a woman.

Some seeing that this is not among the ten commandments try to connect it with the commandments by arguing that if a man shaves his beards, then he is coveting to be someone different from the one God wanted. Thus such a man is going against the tenth commandment that forbids covetousness.

Among the verses of their argument are the following;

Ye shall not round the corners of your heads, neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beardLev. 19:27

They shall not make baldness upon their head, neither shall they shave off the corner of their beard, nor make any cuttings in their flesh.” Lev. 21:5

It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard: that went down to the skirts of his garments.” Ps 133:2

To them for a man to shave his beard is something shameful as he will then resemble a woman and such a man should not be allowed to enter into the house of God. An example they give to prove their argument is when King David’s servants were shaven by Hanun. David ordered them to stay in Jericho until their beards had grown for them to return to Jerusalem;

Wherefore Hanun took David's servants, and shaved off the one half of their beards, and cut off their garments in the middle, even to their buttocks, and sent them away. When they told it unto David, he sent to meet them, because the men were greatly ashamed: and the king said, Tarry at Jericho until your beards be grown, and then return.” 2 Sam. 10:4, 5

Then there went certain, and told David how the men were served. And he sent to meet them: for the men were greatly ashamed. And the king said, Tarry at Jericho until your beards be grown, and then return.” 1Chr. 19:5

Though most of those who hold this as doctrine will have no problem in fellowshipping with those who shave their beards, but they will always have an attitude towards those who shave.
To some Sabbath keeping groups, a man should decide by himself what he thinks of his beards. To them, this is not among the dos and don’ts that a New Testament believer should practice. They argue that this practice was limited to the old dispensation and thus should not be practiced by the New Testament church. To them shaving is no sin for sin is defined as follows;

Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law.” 1 John 3:4.

Sin is violation the commandments which are only ten, and according to them shaving or not shaving does not violate any commandment and thus its not sin. This group has no problem with the one who shave or the one who doesn’t shave.

In the whole New Testament, we have no evidence whatsoever of men being told not to shave their beards and because the New Testament is silent on this issue, then no one should lay it on members as part of doctrine.

11.                DRESS CODE.

In like manner also, that woman adorns themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array.”         1 Timothy 2:9.

Whose adorning let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel;..” 1 Peter 3:3.

Modesty, Modesty, Modesty, this word has been used by some in the Sabbath keeping family to cause strife and divisions.

“A Christian should dress modest, and should refrain from all worldliness. 1 Tim.2:9; 1 Cor.11:7, 14, 15; 1 John 2:15, 16” Article 23 of the points of doctrine of Church of God 7th Day.

Dress code is an issue that cuts across the Christian world with some Christian groups coming up with rules and regulations as pertains to modesty.
In the Seventh Day Adventist church Mrs. Ellen White was in 1863 opposed to what was then known as reform dress. This was a dress that was cut short-about half-way to the knees; with this they wore a sort of loose pants on the limbs below the dress. Some Advent sisters favored it as convenient and healthful; but Mrs. White condemned it saying that those wearing it are unfit to for the third angel’s message (Testimonies for the Church, Vol. I., pp. 421, 422).
"If women would wear their dresses so as to clear the filth of the streets an inch or two, their dresses would be modest and they could be kept clean much more easily, and would wear longer. Such a dress would be in accordance with our faith" (p. 424).

But later (in 1864) it is reported that she approved the reform dress and even Mrs. Ellen White herself adopted the dress (The Life of Ellen White by D.M. Canright)

Nowadays, the Seventh Day Adventist church does not advocate specific clothing, thou most of the members don’t approve trousers for women.

In early 1900s The Church of God 7th Day formulated 40 doctrinal points that covered their main points of doctrine. Point No. 23 reads, “A Christian should dress modest, and should refrain from all worldliness. I Timothy 2:9; 1 Cor. 11:7, 14, 15; 1 John 2:15, 16.
Thus in Churches of God, the issue of dress, especially in women is key. Churches in Africa especially those affiliated to Jerusalem, can not withstand a woman in trousers or in a mini dress. They advocate and preach modesty as per their own specifications i.e. long dress that is below the knees and not tight fitting.

African churches affiliated to the USA have no problem with women in trousers or tight fitting trousers. Their main worry is modesty which to them is wearing something to cover and not showing ones nakedness.

In western countries this differences exist though not to the extent that is seen in African countries. In Africa, it’s very difficult for one who holds to a certain dress code e.g. no trousers for women to attend a Sabbath service with those who puts on trousers. In fact one of the efforts to unite Sabbath keeping churches in Kenya failed because of this issue!


Women and church leadership is a very live wired issue among the Sabbath keeping churches. The issue has divided the Sabbath churches into two with one group against it by all means. To them a woman should not hold any leadership role in the church apart form leading other women in consultation with a man head.

Those who have the idea that a woman should not take up any church leadership role, quotes the following verses;

Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law.” 1Cor 14:34

To this group, the above verse is interpreted to mean that Paul and so does the law orders women to be silent in the Church. Thus they should not give a sermon, lead a prayer, read loudly a verse, ask a question etc. Thus to them a woman should not be a church elder/evangelist/pastor/deacon etc.

The only place that they allow their women to lead is leading other women in their groups or meetings. Even this is done through the guidance of an appointed elder. They argue that this also is Paul’s direction to Titus and Timothy;

The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things;  That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children,Tit 2:3, 4.

Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.” 1 Tim 2:11-12

There are three main reasons given as why women are not supposed to teach or be ordained as church elders;

1.     Women are weaker than men. A man is the head of a woman, thus women should not be ordained as elders. By ordaining women, will make them to be heads over men and being weak vessels they might negatively affect the gospel work;

But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God.” 1Cor 11:3

Likewise, ye husbands, dwell with them according to knowledge, giving honour unto the wife, as unto the weaker vessel, and as being heirs together of the grace of life; that your prayers be not hindered.” 1 Peter 3:7

2.     Adam (man) was the one who was created first and then Eve (woman), thus Adam should take the leadership role.

For Adam was first formed, then Eve.” 1 Tim 2:13.

For the man is not of the woman; but the woman of the man. Neither was the man created for the woman; but the woman for the man.”          1 Cor. 11:8, 9.

3.     It was Eve the woman who was first deceived by Satan and thus this proves that they are weaker vessels than men;

And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression.” 1 Tim 2:14.

The Church of God 7th Day is one of the strongest opposers of women appointment as ministers. In their doctrines article 39 reads as follows;

“Ministers of the Church of God are called “Elders” and are those disciples accepted into the ministry upon recommendation by an ordained Elder, through investigation, both from inside and outside the church, as to character, his attributes as a Christian, his ability to teach. No one being entangled in adultery may hold any office in the church” Acts 14:23, Titus 1:5-9; 1 Tim. 3:1-5. (Article 39 Church of God 7th Day doctrine).

The verses given in Titus and 1 Timothy both tend to suggest that for one to be ordained into ministry as a bishop, he should be a ‘husband’ To them this definitely is very specific that a woman can not hold such an office. Thus in their history, they have never had a woman elder/pastor/bishop.

According to Church of God historian and writer the late Richard Nickels, women may serve as deaconesses a feminine version of a deacon;

“Women are not permitted to preach, to be ordained as ministers. They may serve as deaconesses. Mothers of young and school age children should not work outside the home except in unusual circumstances” True Biblical doctrine by Richard C. Nickels.

As per Richard Nickels and some of the Sabbath keeping churches, a deacon/a deaconess roles are specifically dealing with church business especially food and other materials. Thus according to them a deacon is not an office that makes someone give a sermon in the church or offer sacrifices in the church. He/she is of importance when there are things to be distributed among the members of the church. To argue their case they give the following verse;

And in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplied, there arose a murmuring of the Grecians against the Hebrews, because their widows were neglected in the daily ministration. Then the twelve called the multitude of the disciples unto them, and said, It is not reason that we should leave the word of God, and serve tables.
Wherefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business. But we will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry of the word. And the saying pleased the whole multitude: and they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Ghost, and Philip, and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, and Parmenas, and Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch:” Acts 6:1-4

To Seventh Day Adventist and a few other Sabbath Keeping churches, having an ordained woman elder is no problem. They have what they term, ‘pastoress’ which is a feminine version of ‘pastor.’

To them we are in the New dispensation where God is no respecter of people basing on their race, colour, tribe or gender. Anyone who purifies him/herself can be made into a valuable object in the household of God.

Then Peter opened his mouth, and said, of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons: But in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him.” Acts 10:34, 35.

To the advocates of women ministers, the Bible is not short of women who played a key role in the ministry in the early church. A few instances that they mention are as follows;

The woman then left her waterpot, and went her way into the city, and saith to the men, Come, see a man, which told me all things that ever I did: is not this the Christ?” John 4:28, 29

John gives us an account of Jesus and the Samaritan woman, after seeing that all her secrets have been revealed the woman run to the city and called upon other Samaritans to come and see Jesus. To those who advocate for women ministers, this Samaritan woman evangelized in the city to the point that people came to Jesus. They argue that convincing people of the city to leave their daily chores and come to listen to Jesus wasn’t an easy task.

And he began to speak boldly in the synagogue: whom when Aquila and Priscilla had heard, they took him unto them, and expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly.” Acts 18:26.

I commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is a servant of the church which is at Cenchrea: That ye receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of you: for she hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also.” Romans 16:1,2.

And I intreat thee also, true yokefellow, help those women which laboured with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and with other my fellow labourers, whose names are in the book of life.”  Phil. 4:3

All the above verses and more that can be given are used by those who have women pastors and ministers.

Using different Bible translations we understand that Phoebe was a deaconess;

I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a deaconess of the church at Cenchreae,” (RSV)

Here we find a proof that a woman can be a deaconess in the church and in earlier verse (Acts 18:26) we see that Priscilla being a woman taught Paul the way of God in a perfect way. In Phillipians, we find out that there are women that labored together with Apostle Paul.

Now where the problem starts is that those who have women ministers will have no problem attending a service conducted by a man. But those who are against women minister will not be comfortable to listen to a sermon being offered by a woman. To them that is an abomination of the highest order and anti-Biblical. They can not accept a woman to offer prayers in the church in present of men. To them such a prayer can not reach the heavens, reason being that the Bible is very clear on the issue;

I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting.” 1Tim 2:8

To proposers of women ministers argues that the above verse in Timothy the word men should not be taken in the gender angle, as in the Bible at times the word ‘man’ is used to imply human being. Thus to them the verse says that people (men and women) should pray while lifting up holy hands.

Those against women ministers argue that, the verse is specific that men should pray and just to prove that Paul was referring to gender in that verse; in the next verse he gives the roles of women;

In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array” 1 Timothy 2:9

The issue now remains, how can a woman give a sermon and then be restricted that she can not lead prayers in the church/congregation? To answer this, opposers of women ministers quote 1 Corinthians14:34, ‘Let your women keep silence in the church…’ But those who support women ministers argue that Paul was very specific in Corinthians. To them according to Hermeneutics (art of Bible translation), some verses in the Bible are specific for a particular time, people, period, incidence. Thus Corinthians 14 was specific to the Corinthian women who used to shout, murmur and make noise during church sermons. To them the verse wasn’t supposed to be quoted to other churches that were orderly like Thessalonians, Galatians, Ephesians, etc. They argue that just like the Galatians church had a problem with backsliding and a letter was written to them tackling their backsliding tendencies. The Corinthian church had a problem with managing women in the church and thus a letter was written to them to bring order in God’s church (1 Corinthians 14:33).

13.                TITHING.
Tithing has a very long history in that it’s mentioned in the Bible even before the children of Israel came into being. The Bible first mentions about tithes as early as the days of Abraham, “And blessed be the most high God, which hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he gave him tithes of all.” Genesis 14:20. This is when Abraham was coming from war, after defeating the kings that had made war with Sodom. The Bible records an account where Abraham met with Melchizedek king of Salem and gave him all the tithes.
The next mention of tithes in the Bible is now during the times of Moses and the children of Israel. Here they are now given this practice as an ordinance to practice and they are given instructions to guide the procedure;
And all the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the LORD'S: it is holy unto the LORD. And if a man will at all redeem ought of his tithes, he shall add thereto the fifth part thereof. And concerning the tithe of the herd, or of the flock, even of whatsoever passeth under the rod, the tenth shall be holy unto the LORD. He shall not search whether it be good or bad, neither shall he change it: and if he change it at all, then both it and the change thereof shall be holy; it shall not be redeemed. These are the commandments, which the LORD commanded Moses for the children of Israel in mount SinaiLeviticus 27:30-34.
Sabbath keeping churches/congregations belief that this practice wasn’t among the ordinances that were nailed at the cross/stale. Almost all Sabbath keeping churches still practice tithing. The differences on this issue might be seen as minor by others and major by others.
How to tithe:
Even though all Sabbath keeping churches readily accepts that tithe offering is a continual process in this new dispensation. They still differ on how to tithe.
Some argue that one should give the ten percent of all that he gets either in business, salary, farm products, loan etc. To this group, everything that one gets he/she should calculate the 10 percent and give it out to the church as tithe.

Others argue that tithe is to be offered from the increase;
“Thou shalt truly tithe all the increase of thy seed that the field bringeth forth year by year.” Deut.14:22
They argue that one should subtract all the expenditure and only give tithe from the net profit i.e a businessman should subtract the starting capital, the bills and what remains as net profit is the one to be tithed on. In case a business suffers a loss then he/she should not give tithe as he/she has no increase. Same with a farmer, he should subtract all the inputs then tithe on the net profit.
Types of tithes and their use:
Worldwide Church of God and her splinter groups teach and belief in three types of tithes as mentioned in Deuteronomy;
Thou shalt truly tithe all the increase of thy seed, that the field bringeth forth year by year.
And thou shalt eat before the LORD thy God, in the place which he shall choose to place his name there, the tithe of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the firstlings of thy herds and of thy flocks; that thou mayest learn to fear the LORD thy God always.
And if the way be too long for thee, so that thou art not able to carry it; or if the place be too far from thee, which the LORD thy God shall choose to set his name there, when the LORD thy God hath blessed thee:
Then shalt thou turn it into money, and bind up the money in thine hand, and shalt go unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose:
And thou shalt bestow that money for whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatsoever thy soul desireth: and thou shalt eat there before the LORD thy God, and thou shalt rejoice, thou, and thine household,” Deuteronomy 14:22-26.
When thou hast made an end of tithing all the tithes of thine increase the third year, which is the year of tithing, and hast given it unto the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, that they may eat within thy gates, and be filled;” Deut. 26:14.
Now according to the above verses, the tithes mentioned are follows;
a)     The tithe to use during the annual feasts.
b)    The tithe for the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless and the widow.
c)     The tithe to spread the gospel.
To other groups tithes is a preserve of elders and members are never allowed to know how it’s being used. In such groups members just give what they deem fit and don’t question at all or are never updated on how much was collected and how it was spent.
Another issue is whether to tithe on the Sabbath or not. Most of Churches of God affiliated to Jerusalem; don’t collect tithes on Sabbath day. Other Churches of God have no problem with tithing on the Sabbath day. In the Seventh Day Adventist Church, they do tithe on Sabbath, though in their earlier histories they were against as D.Canright writes;
 Up till 1877, no money for any purpose, not even for Sabbath schools, was collected in their churches on the Sabbath. It was regarded as sacrilegious to take money on the Sabbath. But at Danvers, Mass., I disregarded this custom, and took the first collection on the Sabbath, Aug. 18, 1877. It worked well. I went to Battle Creek, and laid the matter before Elder White and his wife, who readily approved of it. It has been universally adopted by the denomination ever since, and has brought hundreds of thousands of dollars into their treasury. This again illustrates how Mrs. White simply followed after and endorsed what others studied out.”



That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me.” John 17:21



Book two analyses areas that majority if not all Sabbath keepers agree on and these areas or fundamental points of belief if used properly can be the reason for the much needed unity among Sabbath keepers.

Though you might not agree with such and such group because of one or two of the points discussed in Book one, at least you can find reasons and issues that brings you together.

In the United States of America for example, after different Sabbath keepers meeting in forums and discussing the possibility of sharing their commonness. They came up with an organization that up to date is very active in spreading the Sabbath truth, “Bible Sabbath Association (BSA)”. This association comprises of Sabbath keepers from different groups that have realized that they share not only the Sabbath day but a few more beliefs. They have their officials from different groups and publish a number of articles that defend the Bible Sabbath and a monthly magazine, ‘The Sabbath Sentinel (TSS)’. Though in the Sentinel they publish a number of other issues like the Hebrew names (Sacred names), feasts etc, but they have never made these other issues their point of contention.

What Is The Bible Sabbath Association?
The Bible Sabbath Association is a non-denominational organization, open to all believers in the Seventh-day Sabbath. Its main purposes are:
  • to promote fellowship and cooperation between Sabbath-keepers of various groups;
  • to promote Sabbath observance on a non-denominational basis;
  • to restore respect and honor for the Ten Commandments as a whole, with special emphasis on the Fourth, which has been forgotten by most of the world
  • to encourage the repeal of laws which enforce the keeping of Sunday (or any day) by any unit of man's government; and
  • to defeat the adoption of any calendar which would disrupt the seven-day weekly cycle.
Its beginnings can be traced to the outcome of correspondence in late 1943 between a few Sabbath-keepers of various beliefs and affiliations who felt the need for a closer cooperation between various Sabbath-keepers. Although the home office is located in Fairview, Oklahoma, the Bible Sabbath Association now has a branch with offices in Australia as well as members located in several countries around the world.(

This is a challenge to other states and countries especially in Africa and pacific’s where majority of Sabbath keepers differ to the point of seeing the other as rivals and not of the heavenly family. If only Sabbath keepers would dwell much on the points that they share in common than those that divide them, then they will realize that they share a lot.

Here are some of the fundamental points that Sabbath keepers share, the points might be more than the ones quoted in this book, but one thing is for sure. If the ones quoted here will not make one see the commonness then nothing will.


All of the Sabbath keeper’s churches and congregations affirm that The Bible both the Old and the New Testament is the word of God and it is inspired.

The fact that Sabbath keepers accept that the Bible is the word of God both Old and New Testament is a plus. It’s very hard to convince many Sunday keeping churches using the Old Testament for they argue that it’s overtaken by the New Testament. Such argument may turn out to be a tall order as it’s hard to convince a person with something that he doesn’t belief in.

The major obstacle among Sabbath keepers in the Old Testament is to how to determine what was done away with. In fact this is still an issue, for example as discussed in book one, some holds to feasts saying that they are still binding and that what was done away with were daily sacrifices. While others reject the feasts claiming that they together with daily sacrifices were done away with. Both groups believing in the Old Testament, but differing on what to believe in the same Testament.

Here are some of a few selected points regarding the Bible from doctrinal believes of a few Sabbath keeping groups;
“We believe that the Bible is the inspired Word of God and is our final authority in matters of faith and practice. We believe that Jesus Christ, in His life and teachings as recorded in the Bible, is the supreme interpreter of God's will for mankind.” Seventh Day Baptist.
“The Bible, consisting of the Old and New Testaments, is God’s inspired Word. Inerrant in its original writing, the Bible is the only authoritative and infallible rule of faith and conduct for humanity.” GC Church of God 7th Day.
The Bible:  We believe that the Holy Scripture of the Old and New Testaments is the inspired Word of God.  The purpose of the Bible is to reveal the supreme Divine authority of God over mankind, and to make known His universal plan of salvation.  The true inspiration of the Bible is Jesus Christ.  The Bible is the basis of all Godly knowledge and the source of all Truth.  Containing God's instructions for the Church of God, it is entirely sufficient for salvation.  The Bible reveals the purpose for man's existence, which is to ultimately be like God in the Family of God.  The is the Foundation of Knowledge.  Without Holy Scripture, we would know nothing of God the Father, His Son, Jesus Christ, salvation, eternal life, or the Kingdom of God.” Sabbath Church of God.
“THAT the Bible is inspired of Yahweh and reveals knowledge man could not learn by himself. We are to live by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of Yahweh, Matthew 4:4." All Scripture [both the Old and New Testaments] is given by inspiration of Yahweh and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness," 2Timothy 3:14-16. The Bible is His truth and is of no private interpretation, 2Peter 1:21. We must neither add to nor take away from Scripture, Deuteronomy 4:2; 12:32; Rev. 22:18.” Yahweh Assembly in Yahshua.
The Bible, Old and New Testaments, is inspired as no other writing is, and is complete, infallible and expresses God's complete will to man. II Timothy 3:16-17; II Peter 1:20-21; Proverbs 30:5-6; Revelation 22:18-19; Isaiah 55:11; John 5:39- 40; Deuteronomy 4:2; 12:32. We believe that the Bible is its own commentary. We must therefore examine everything in the light of the Bible, weighing everything in the balance of the Bible, and if it will not agree, reject it, but if it will agree and stand up under scrutiny, accept it. "Prove all things; hold fast that which is good" (I Thessalonians 5:21).
There is so much Bible translation going on in the world, and traditions of religions are inserted and substituted for fixed principles. Modernism is taking the place of the fundamental truths. We therefore recommend the use of the authorized.” Church of God 7th Day (Salem).

“The Holy Scriptures, Old and New Testaments, are the written Word of God, given by divine inspiration through holy men of God who spoke and wrote as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. In this Word, God has committed to man the knowledge necessary for salvation. The Holy Scriptures are the infallible revelation of His will. They are the standard of character, the test of experience, the authoritative revealer of doctrines, and the trustworthy record of God's acts in history. (2 Peter 1:20, 21; 2 Tim. 3:16, 17; Ps. 119:105; Prov. 30:5, 6; Isa. 8:20; John 17:17; 1 Thess. 2:13; Heb. 4:12.)” Seventh Day Adventist.  

The writings of Tanakh and Brit Hadasha are divinely inspired and fully trustworthy (true), a gift given by God to His people, provided to impart life and to form, nurture, and guide them in the ways of truth. They are of supreme and final authority in all matters of faith and practice. (II Tim. 3:16, 17; II Pet. 1:19-21)” Messianic Jewish Congregations.

We affirm that in order to interpret the inspired Scriptures correctly, we must use the Old Testament as a basis for our faith. We must therefore interpret the New Testament through the teachings of the Old, recognizing complete harmony in the Word, thereby achieving sound doctrine, John 10:35. In the New Testament we find that repeated reference is made to the law, the Psalms, and the prophets: in other words, the Word of Almighty Yahweh, Matt. 4:4; John 5:39; Luke 24:44-46; 2 Timothy 3:14-17; Isaiah 8:16, 20; Acts 17:11. The Old Testament Scriptures saw partial fulfillment in the accounts that are recorded in the New, while they will find complete fulfillment in the years that will follow the Second Coming of our Savior.” Assemblies of Yahweh.


Most Sunday keeping churches fail to understand why Sabbath keeping churches stick to Saturday come sun come rain. To Sunday keepers, anyone who keeps the Sabbath is either a Seventh Day Adventist or a Jew. Most of them are ignorant of other Sabbath keeping groups save the two.

Though as already discussed in book one, a number of Sabbath keepers differ on how to keep the Sabbath holy, but the fact remains that they all remember the Sabbath day. Whether one cooks on the Sabbath or not, but provided he acknowledges that Saturday is the Sabbath and fellowship on that particular day, has a role to play in this darkened world.

In the points of believes of all Sabbath keeping churches/congregations, they affirm that Saturday is the seventh day of the week, and also affirm that it should be kept holy by resting from our daily work. Here are a few fundamental beliefs;

“THAT the seventh day of the week (called Saturday) is the day Yahweh has set apart, and is a memorial of His omnipotent creative power, Genesis 2:2-3. The Sabbath day is a holy day of rest, Exodus 20:8-11; end points to that greater Millennial rest of salvation, Matthew 11:28-30;Luke 4:16-18; Hebrews 4:1-6. Yahweh freely offers the Sabbath as an opportunity to accept and experience His marvelous creation and redemption; Mark 2:27-28; Hebrews 4:7-11. By participating in the Sabbath we express our belief in Yahshua as the Creator and as the Author and Finisher of our Salvation, Hebrews 12:2. The Sabbath rest is a symbol of our love, loyalty and commitment to Yahweh, Exodus 31:13. By consecrating a portion of our time that He has designated for our rest and worship, we show our subjection to His will, and recognize His dominion over our life and over the whole creation. A "Sabbath rest" remains for His people, Hebrews 4:9, a day of delight and not a day of works, Isaiah 58:13.” Yahweh Assembly in Yahshua.

“The beneficent Creator, after the six days of Creation, rested on the seventh day and instituted the Sabbath for all people as a memorial of Creation. The fourth commandment of God's unchangeable law requires the observance of this seventh-day Sabbath as the day of rest, worship, and ministry in harmony with the teaching and practice of Jesus, the Lord of the Sabbath. The Sabbath is a day of delightful communion with God and one another. It is a symbol of our redemption in Christ, a sign of our sanctification, a token of our allegiance, and a foretaste of our eternal future in God's kingdom. The Sabbath is God's perpetual sign of His eternal covenant between Him and His people. Joyful observance of this holy time from evening to evening, sunset to sunset, is a celebration of God's creative and redemptive acts.
(Gen. 2:1-3; Ex. 20:8-11; Luke 4:16; Isa. 56:5, 6; 58:13, 14; Matt. 12:1-12; Ex. 31:13-17; Eze. 20:12, 20; Deut. 5:12-15; Heb. 4:1-11; Lev. 23:32; Mark 1:32.)” Seventh Day Adventist.

We believe that the Sabbath of the Bible, the seventh day of the week, is sacred time, a gift of God to all people, instituted at creation, affirmed in the Ten Commandments and reaffirmed in the teaching and example of Jesus and the apostles.
We believe that the gift of Sabbath rest is an experience of God's eternal presence with His people.
We believe that in obedience to God and in loving response to His grace in Christ, the Sabbath should be faithfully observed as a day of rest, worship, and celebration.” Seventh Day Baptist.
“We believe that the seventh day of the week, Friday sunset to Saturday sunset, is the Holy Sabbath of the Lord our God. On this day we believe that we must rest from our physical labors and pursuits, and be spiritually rejuvenated by assembling together with God's people to worship God wherever possible. God rested on the seventh day after creation, picturing the millennial rest at the end of the first six thousand years of God's plan for man.  We believe that at Christ's return He will establish the Kingdom of God on the earth and rule the earth with the Spirit born saints for one thousand years, completing the seven thousand year plan of God for mankind. The millennial reign of Christ, the Messiah, will bring peace and prosperity to the earth with salvation open to all mankind. In keeping and observing the Sabbath, we are following the command and example of Jesus Christ. The Apostle Paul, along with the first century New Testament Church of God, kept the Sabbath, and true Christians keep the Sabbath today.” Sabbath Church of God.
 “The seventh-day Sabbath is God’s gift to humanity from creation, was written into the Ten Commandments by God’s finger, kept and taught by Jesus, and observed by the apostolic church. A memorial of both creation and redemption, the Sabbath should be faithfully celebrated by believers now as a day of rest, worship, and well-doing.” GC of The Church of God 7th Day.
Many other quotations from other Sabbath keeping churches may not be given due to time and space, but the fact is that they all stand in support of the seventh day Sabbath and this is one of the main distinctions between them and other churches.
All Sabbath keeping groups agrees on when the Sabbath starts at sunset on Friday and ends at sunset on Saturday. They have totally rejected the mainstream believe that a day starts and ends at midnight. Though available history indicates that in their early years they had some problems with this issue. In Seventh Day Adventist for example it wasn’t until Ellen G. White received a vision in support of sunset to sunset Sabbath that they started observing it the right way.

To my opinion, the Sabbath if embraced and used as a mark of identify, where by anyone who keeps the Sabbath is regarded as a candidate in the heavenly kingdom, then progress in the unification may be realized.


Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.” Leviticus 11:2

In the Sabbath keeping world, they believe in clean and unclean beasts as mentioned in Leviticus 11. A Sabbath keeper believes in what they term as God’s diet, where by not all beasts on earth were made to be eaten by men. Others were made for different purposes in the food chain. Leviticus 11 gives an account of what men should eat (clean animals) and what they are not supposed to eat (unclean animals).

Clean and unclean animals existed even before Moses was born and Israel came into being, some through ignorance argue that this was a law given only to the children of Israel for a specific period of time. But the Bible states contrary;

Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his femaleGenesis 7:2

This verse takes place hundreds of years before the children of Israel came into being. Noah a man of God at those early years of the world knew which animals were clean and which one were not! He was commanded to take by sevens male and female clean animals and by two male and female unclean animals into the ark. Surely Noah didn’t confuse them, He knew!

Noah a man of God knew how to differentiate clean and unclean animals even before the book of Leviticus was written. How can we who are living with the book of Leviticus fail to distinguish between the two?

Sabbath keepers agree that the law of clean and unclean meat is still intact, binding and that the apostles also held to this law.

Apostle Peter in a vision (Acts 10:9-17) where he saw all kinds of beasts and he was told to kill and eat. Though the vision was not about beasts lest one argue that God told Peter to eat every beast. The vision was about gentile (unclean animals) and Jews (clean animals), and that’s why Peter said;
And he said unto them, Ye know how that it is an unlawful thing for a man that is a Jew to keep company, or come unto one of another nation; but God hath shewed me that I should not call any man common or uncleanActs 10:28.

If the vision was meant to be understood as beasts, then Peter could not have said that God has shown him not to call ANY MAN COMMON OR UNCLEAN! Thus the vision was a call to Peter not to think that gentiles were unclean and should not be welcomed into this salvation message.

In the same chapter, Peter reveals to us that he had never tasted unclean meat;

But Peter said, Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten any thing that is common or unclean.” Acts 10:14.

Surely this happened after a few years since the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross and if this sacrifice was the one that allowed people to eat unclean meat, then Peter could have known and he could not have stayed up to this time without tasting the unclean animals.

Apostle Paul had this to say regarding these beasts;

Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth. For every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving: For it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer.” 1 Timothy 4:3-5

Paul admonish us that every creature of God is good and nothing to be refused, before one can use this verse for his/her own destruction, Paul continue to say for it (that creature) is sanctified by the word of God and prayer. This is point clear before you eat any creature; ask yourself if the word of God sanctify that meat. If yes, then pray and eat. But if the word of God does not sanctify it, then you can’t do that by prayer alone. The two (Word of God and Prayer) must accompany each other.

The two distinctions still exist, God created some animals for food and others weren’t made for food. Those made for food are sanctified by the word of God i.e. allowed/set aside for food by the word of God and by prayers. One can not take an animal that is not set aside (allowed) by the word of God and think that by praying alone that animal will be clean. One must first confirm if the word allows us to eat that animal before praying and eating it.

Seventh Day Adventist, at some point in their history started teaching against any meat even the clean ones. Though their position on this matter is changing by the day and now a good number of them eat meat. They argue that meat was given after the fall and that for meat is not good for your health. This brought a lot of storm to the extent that other Sabbath keeping churches pointed finger at them claiming that they are fulfilling the prophecy of 1 Timothy 4:3. Though available sources tend to prove that even               Mrs. White herself, though against meat in public but behind the curtains was a meat lover.


The Church of God (7th Day) headquartered in Salem has adopted a doctrine that almost resembles that of the Seventh Day Adventist. In their doctrinal point 31, they state the following;

“The return of Jesus will be literal, visible, personal and is imminent. This Second Coming will be in two parts:

The Reaping Phase
Christ comes first for the Saints and His Church. He comes only as far as the clouds and air. The Saints are caught up to meet Him. Jesus is the "King of Saints"

The Warring Phase
The second part of His return is the warring phase. Jesus, sitting on a white horse and wearing many crowns, comes with His Saints as "King of kings" and "Lord of lords" to smite the armies of the nations who are gathered against Him.”

In the above doctrine, the Salem group is not specific where Jesus will be the ‘King of Saints.’ Is it in the clouds and air? If it is in the clouds then for how long?  This doctrine partly agrees with Seventh Day Adventist, as in other verses in the Bible clouds are referred as ‘heaven’. The Bible mentions three types of heavens;

But will God indeed dwell on the earth? behold, the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain thee; how much less this house that I have builded?” 1 Kings 8:27

I knew a man in Christ above fourteen years ago, (whether in the body, I cannot tell; or whether out of the body, I cannot tell: God knoweth;) such an one caught up to the third heaven.” 2 Cor. 12:2

To prove that the above verses are anything to go by, the following three classifications of heavens are found in the Bible;

1)    The area just above the earth where birds fly (Jer.4:25,9:10)
2)    The area covered by the clouds and stars (Deut.32:28, Judges 5:4,       1 Chron.27:23)
3)    The habitation of God and the Angels ( Acts 7:56,Psa.103:19,115:3)

Churches of God affirm that when Jesus returns, it will be a one phase return. Where the saints shall meet Him in the clouds and return to the earth (purpose of saints going to the clouds is just to meet Him), where Jesus feet will stand on mount Olives. He will rule together with the saints’ rule for one thousand years (Millennium) here on earth.

And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth.” Rev. 5:10

Also read Isaiah 11:1-10 to see how that Kingdom will be.

Seventh Day Adventist believes that during the second advent of Christ, all the sinners will be put to death. The righteous will be caught up in heaven together with Christ, where they will be for one thousand years. During this period (Millennium) the earth will be desolate i.e. without any living thing apart from Satan and his angels. The unrighteous death will be judged during this period. Near the end of the 1000 years, Jesus together with the saints and the Holy city Jerusalem will descend on earth and the unrighteous will be resurrected. The unrighteous together with Satan and his angels will surround the Holy city but fire will come from heaven and consume them, thus the earth will be so cleansed. After that, the saints will inherit the earth and dwell therein forever more.

As from the earlier affirmations from Churches of God, it will be noted that they believe that during Christ return they will go to heaven! This is so because as already explained, clouds are also termed as ‘heaven’. The main difference now is that while Seventh Day Adventist affirm that they will go to the third heaven (where God dwells) for one thousand years, Churches of God believes they will go to heaven (where clouds are) to meet Jesus. Thus according to Churches of God, they will not be in the clouds for days/years. It’s a matter of meeting the Saviour and coming back to earth.

Thus despite the differences, most Sabbath keepers believe in the ultimate kingdom on earth.


Mainstream Christianity has a belief that once one dies if he was righteous then at that time or to some after three days he is taken to heaven to start the everlasting life. While in case of unrighteous person, then once he dies he is taken to hell to start an everlasting life of torment and sufferings.

To almost all Sabbath keepers, the above analogy is misleading and         anti- Biblical. A Sabbath keeper regardless of the group or affiliations belief that, when one dies he does not go anywhere! He doesn’t go to heaven or hell; he awaits the Day of Judgment from where he was buried.

The Church of God 7th day affirms the following as regards to the state of the death;

The dead are unconscious in their graves and immortality is conditional.
When God formed Adam, out of the dust of the ground, and before Adam could live, God breathed the breath of life into his body: "And man became a living soul" (Genesis 2:7). See also Ezekiel 18:4, 20. Psalm 146:4 says, "His (man's) breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth (dust); in that very day his thoughts perish." No man has ascended to heaven except Jesus Christ.”

Seventh Day Adventist has the following in their fundamental beliefs;

“The wages of sin is death. But God, who alone is immortal, will grant eternal life to His redeemed. Until that day death is an unconscious state for all people. When Christ, who is our life, appears, the resurrected righteous and the living righteous will be glorified and caught up to meet their Lord. The second resurrection, the resurrection of the unrighteous, will take place a thousand years later.”

They first affirm that the wages of sin is death i.e. not everlasting life in hell, then they move on to acknowledge that death is an unconscious state for all people. Meaning that when you die you become unconscious. You can not know anything that happened or is happening anywhere.

A reader who might be interested to know more about this is welcomed to write to us and we will supply him with literature and Biblical materials that explain the state of the death.

Contrary to the popular belief that sinners will burn day in day out, almost all Sabbath keeping churches/congregations belief that the punishment of sinners will not be day in day out.

They agree that the gift of eternal life is only promised to the saints, those who will be found worthy during the second coming of Christ;

For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.” Joh 3:16

For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.” Romans 6:23

When a righteous man turneth away from his righteousness, and committeth iniquity, and dieth in them; for his iniquity that he hath done shall he die.” Ezekiel 18:26.

From the above two verses and more that can be given, it’s clear that the gift of God eternal life and this is only promised to those who will believe in the begotten Son. But all those who will reject the gift of God and continue living in sin, will receive their wages which is DEATH.

Sabbath keepers agree that by having sinners in a place called hell to burn day in day out, then they (sinners) will be having eternal life in hell. Yes, if they are burning and yet they are still alive and because they’re burning year in year out, then it’s eternal! The Bible is very clear; the only people to get ETERNAL LIFE are those who live according to the will of God, those who have surrendered their lives to God. But the rest will be burnt to ashes;

For, behold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble: and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the LORD of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch…… And ye shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet in the day that I shall do this, saith the LORD of hosts.”  Malachi 4:1, 3.

Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn.” Matt.13:30.

The above verses indicates that the wicked shall be burnt to ashes, this is just the way a farmer gathers dry tares from his farm and burns them. The tares doesn’t burn day in day out but it takes the fire some few minutes to turn the tares into ashes, so it will be with sinners. The fire of God is hot that it can not fry/boil them year in year out. It will consume them into ashes and they will cease to exist as the wages of sin is DEATH and not eternal life in a place called hell.

A genuine question might be, why do Sabbath keepers belief that sinners will be burnt to ashes when it’s written in the Bible that they will be casted in an eternal fire?

Wherefore if thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into everlasting fire.” Matt 18:8

Yes, Sabbath keepers acknowledge the above verse and many that can be quoted to show that the judgment of sinners will be everlasting. But what does the Bible mean by ‘everlasting’ in such contest?

And thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst anoint their father, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office: for their anointing shall surely be an everlasting priesthood throughout their generations.” Ex 40:15

Here we find another verse where Moses is being told that the priesthood of Aaron and his descendants was to be an everlasting priest. Now every Bible student will agree that Aaron’s priesthood ended and even Jesus himself who is our chief priest did not came from the house of Levi but the house of Judah. Now does the Bible contradict itself? No, the only thing here to realize is that ‘everlasting’ is used in this context to mean until that dispensation is replaced by another one. Using the same idea, ‘everlasting fire’ means that until the sinners casted in it are consumed, until they are no more.


The practice of tithing has already been discussed at length in book one, but in that part it was discussed as a dividing factor. Now, here we tackle it as a unifying factor. One may wonder ‘how can the same item that was used for dividing be the same used for uniting?’ This can happen if allowed to.

All Sabbath keeping churches/congregation belief that tithing is a continuous practice, they all affirm that people in the new dispensation are supposed to continue giving their ten percent to the Lord. Despite the differences discussed earlier, just the fact that all believe in tithing is a plus.

Why doesn’t a Sabbath keeper from one group learn something from the other as regards to the continuity of tithing? Yes I agree that even some Sunday keeping churches also affirm that tithing is a continuous practice. But they don’t keep the Sabbath! With them (Sunday keepers) we get more that divides us than what unites us.


Some years after graduating from college, I got a job in a medical college where I worked as a tutor. The principal of that college was a former Seventh Day Adventist. One day I had a discussion with him as to why he left SDA. To my surprise, he didn’t leave SDA on willing but he was excommunicated. This happened after he divorced his first wife and married another one contrary to then church position on divorce and remarriage. The church elder read to the whole congregation his charges and members were allowed to vote by lifting up their hands. He was amazed that even his friends lifted their hands up in support for his excommunication.

Marriage is honourable in all, and the bed undefiled: but whoremongers and adulterers God will judge.” Hebrews 13:4

In Churches of God, it’s known that their position has been and still is against divorce and remarriage. To some local churches it’s very strict in that before one is baptized, he is asked about his marriage history. If found to be living with a second wife. He is advised to seek reconciliation with the first wife, before being baptized.

A number of Sacred Name congregations also hold marriage institution with respect and honour it deserve. A few congregations allow divorce and remarriage, especially if a spouse is not of their faith, they do advise the one in faith to divorce that one and marry from their faith. Biblical position on this is very clear and against such practice.

All that said, still the fact remain that as compared to Sunday keeping churches, Most Sabbath keeping churches uphold the institution of marriage. They all agree that marriage is sanctified and not a mere game seen in some Sunday churches.

Most Sabbath keeping groups/congregation advocate for a monogamous marriage. In some when one goes for a polygamous marriage he ceases to be a member of that group. Though some sacred name congregations argue that it’s only elders/pastors, who are admonished to be in a monogamous marriage. They reason that if one is not an elder then he is free to marry as many wives as he is able to take care of them.
A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach1 Timothy 3:2

For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee: If any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children not accused of riot or unruly.” Titus 1:5, 6

Let the deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well.” 1Ti 3:12

To them, the above verses give them a directive that only elders/bishops/deacons should marry one wife but to the rest of the congregation no law if given. This point alone is enough to scatter any unity efforts that can be tried basing on marriage institution.

To others, a Christian marriage should be purely monogamous. Their argument starts from the Garden of Eden, where God created only one wife (Eve) for Adam, and that as early as that, it was written;

Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.” Genesis 2:24.

A man (singular) leaves his father and mother and cleaves to his wife (singular). Other verses given down here also tend to show the singularity of marriage. Thus it wasn’t God’s plan that marriage should be polygamous, though others claim that women are twice as many as men, (To this group, we refer them to our research paper, ‘Demystifying the myths in prostitution’).

What’s Marriage?

The definition of marriage in most Sabbath keeping groups includes the words, ‘between a man and a woman.’ Thus most Sabbath keeping groups do not approve the gay/ lesbian relationships. Though it’s of interest that of late, more liberal groups are emerging in the Sabbath keeping churches. These liberal groups are advocating for the rights of gays and lesbians in the church. The mostly affected church that is struggling with this issue is the Seventh Day Adventist. Despite this push, official position of most Sabbath keeping churches/congregations is against gay and lesbian relationships.

And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh?” Mt 19:5

For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh.” Eph 5:31

Reasons for divorce:

As already said earlier, some congregations advocate that after believing in their faith and if a spouse rejects the faith, then the other partner is free to divorce and remarry. The Bible records the following;

……. If any brother hath a wife that believeth not, and she be pleased to dwell with him, let him not put her away…..For the unbelieving husband is sanctified by the wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the husband: else were your children unclean; but now are they holy….For what knowest thou, O wife, whether thou shalt save thy husband? or how knowest thou, O man, whether thou shalt save thy wife?” 1 Cor. 7:12, 14, 16.

And he saith unto them, Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, committeth adultery against her.” Mark 10:11

“But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery.”  Matt 5:32

The only reason that can be said is given for ‘putting away a wife’ is ‘fornication’

And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery.” Matt 19:9

Now the question here is; how can a married woman fornicate? As fornication is sexual act between two unmarried people. In depth study here reveals a case study that is same as that of Joseph and Mary in Matthew 1:18-24. Joseph was in an engagement but he came to realize that Mary was pregnant and thus decided to put her away, reason? He thought that Mary had fornicated and this is the same thing that Jesus explained in the above verse. Once one marries that wife, it ceases to be fornication but if found in a sexual act that is adultery and is no reason for divorce! (For more on this contact us).

And unto the married I command, yet not I, but the Lord, Let not the wife depart from her husband: But and if she depart, let her remain unmarried, or be reconciled to her husband: and let not the husband put away his wife.” 1Cor. 7:10 11

“Whosoever putteth away his wife, and marrieth another, committeth adultery: and whosoever marrieth her that is put away from her husband committeth adultery” Luke 16:18

Sabbath keepers being believers in the Ten Commandments of which the seventh commandment reads, “Thou shalt not commit adultery.” Makes them very much awake to their marriage vows. This commandment makes sense in that they believe in all the ten, and in James we are told that whoever breaks one has broken all. Infact some points of doctrine of certain groups states, “Anyone who has been implicated in adultery can not hold any office in the church.” This is historically proven in the Worldwide Church of God, where Garner Ted, son of the founder and leader, elder Herbert Armstrong was stripped off all leadership roles after being implicated in adultery.


In the world nowadays baptism is slowly being watered down by the day. Most Sunday believers have never been baptized as they were only told by their pastor/bishop to repeat a certain prayer after him/her. They were meant to believe that after repeating that prayer, they were saved and need no baptism. Some still like the Catholic Church, just pour a little water on the head and the priest declares that the candidate has been baptized. In others like Salvation Army, one has to pass through a flag and he is perceived to have been baptized!  There are quite many forms and ways that Sunday keeping churches believe in as baptism.

In the Sabbath keeping churches, almost all of them agree on this issue. They all agree that baptism is symbolic to dying and rising with Christ;

Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death? Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.” Romans 6:3, 4.

Most of Sabbath keepers if not all, believe in baptism by immersion in many waters. They will never baptize a candidate if many waters are not available just as the practice was with John the Baptist;

And John also was baptizing in Aenon near to Salim, because there was much water there: and they came, and were baptized.” John 3:23.

The reason for many waters is because they believe that baptism is symbolic to death and resurrection with Christ. Thus in baptism, one must have died, buried then resurrected together with Christ. Literary when one dies he/she is buried where he can completely be covered and thus the need for many waters so that one can be completely covered (buried).

As already discussed in Book one a few of Sabbath keeping churches/ congregations believe in Trinity. They believe in Father, Son and Holy Spirit as being three in one. They would like to do everything in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. When it comes to baptism, most of them have no problem with Jesus directive in Matthew 28:19;

Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:” Matt. 28:19.

Sabbath keeping churches/congregations have no issue with this, they all agree in baptizing in the name of Jesus Christ (Yahshua Messiah/Yeshua Maschiac/ Yahuwashuwah). They have no contradictions about this, the funny part being that even the Seventh Day Adventist that believe in Trinity don’t baptize in the Father, Son and Holy Ghost!

10.                PAGAN HOLYDAYS.

Sabbath keepers being Bible believing people as earlier said tend to get direction from the Bible. Throughout the earlier histories, they were known to oppose celebrations of pagan origin. These celebrations included but not limited to Sunday, Christmas, Good Friday and Easter Monday, Halloween, etc

A number of Sabbath keeping churches though have started embracing this pagan holydays. In the Seventh Day Adventist for example, the official position of the church is against the pagan celebrations. They have though dropped the harsh opposition and strictness they had towards these celebrations. This has encouraged most of their members to embrace and celebrate these pagan holydays.

Churches of God are still against this pagan holydays and they don’t celebrate them at all. Here is an article that I wrote sometimes in December 2011.



We are in that period once again, the period of festivities, the time when people from all walks of life are preparing for the Christmas celebrations.

While we do so, many are the questions that arise during this time, one of the most asked questions is;

“Where is Christmas in the Bible?”

In answering this question, people do use different verses that seem to suite them and favor their argument either for or against Christmas! Let us keep in mind the admonition of Apostle Paul to Timothy;

Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.” 2 Timothy 2:15

In keeping in mind that all scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: we must remember that since the scriptures are given by inspiration, they can not be serve any private interpretation. (2 Timothy 3:16, 2 Peter 1:20).

It is not once we have heard those who don’t celebrate Christmas struggling to prove how it is not good to celebrate it. Some even have gone to the extent of quoting Jeremiah;

And it came to pass in the seven and thirtieth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, in the five and twentieth day of the month, that Evilmerodach king of Babylon in the first year of his reign lifted up the head of Jehoiachin king of Judah, and brought him forth out of prison,…” Jeremiah 52:31

Then after quoting the verse, they claim that Jehoiachin was released from prison on 25th December and thus the celebrations that are done on that day, are done in commemoration of the day Jehoiachin was released from prison and have nothing to do with the birth of Jesus!

Still others quote Luke;

And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth to a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.….” Luke 1:26.

They claim that angel Gabriel was sent to Mary on sixth month i.e June and if Mary became pregnant in June and Jesus was supposed to be born like any other baby i.e. nine months in pregnancy and thus conclude that by December, Mary’s pregnancy was only six months old!

I do understand the urge that anti Christmas believers have to prove from the Bible that it’s not supposed to be celebrated. But we will be making a serious mistake if we interpret the Scriptures in a cunning way to suit our arguments.

We all know that the twelfth month that is being referred in the book of Jeremiah is not December, as the way the months were named then is quite different from the way we name them now. Thus date twenty fifth of the twelfth month of Jeremiah 52 can not be 25th December!!

As regards the book of Luke, what is being referred here is not the sixth month of the calendar year, but the sixth month of Elisabeth pregnancy!

And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren.” Luke 1:36.

When the angel was sent to Mary, Elisabeth her cousin and wife to Zacharias was six month pregnant. This is as simple as that and thus can not be a pointer for us to comfortably say that Jesus was born somewhere in March!!

Those who celebrate Christmas have been heard time and again saying that it doesn’t matter whether Christ was born on that day or not. That what matters is that He was born!! Have it ever come to your mind that every word that we say here on earth we shall give an account of it on the judgment day? How will you account for 25th December celebrations?

For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil.” Ecc.12:14.

We should heed to Apostle Paul’s admonition to rightly divide the word of truth, we should never be swayed to the point of using the Scriptures in a way that will favor us but distort the good tidings of our Lord Jesus Christ.


Now someone is wondering and even ready to ask, “Now how will we convince people that Christmas is not Biblical?” That’s a genuine question as we have the Bible as our basis of all doctrine and nothing but the Bible.

Before even thinking hard on which verse to use to teach someone about Christmas, why can’t you give him/her that priviledge for him/her to give you a verse that supports Christmas?

In the whole Bible, we have no record where Christmas was celebrated! Leave alone Christmas, we have no record where God’s people celebrated their birthdays!! The only people that we have records that celebrated their birthdays were gentiles, people who did not know God;

And it came to pass the third day, which was Pharaoh's birthday, that he made a feast unto all his servants: and he lifted up the head of the chief butler and of the chief baker among his servants.” Gen. 40:20.

But when Herod's birthday was kept, the daughter of Herodias danced before them, and pleased Herod.”  Matt. 14:6.

And when a convenient day was come, that Herod on his birthday made a supper to his lords, high captains, and chief estates of Galilee.” Mark 6:21.

Those are the only two occurrences in the whole Bible where we find people celebrating birthdays. Herod’s birthday has been mentioned twice in Matthew and Mark but it is the same day.

From the above mentioned occurrences, which of the two people mentioned feared God? None, both of them were gentiles who never feared God the Almighty! But worshipped idols. Apostle Paul tells us to follow them;

Not because we have not power, but to make ourselves an ensample unto you to follow us.” 2 Thess. 3:9

Be ye followers of me, even as I also am of Christ.” 1 Cor. 11:1.

We should ask ourselves a simple question, if we are following Apostle Paul, did he ever celebrate Christmas? The answer definitely will be NO. Then if Paul never celebrated it, then why are we doing it? In His life in this world did Christ ever celebrated His birthday? The answer is NO, in the lives of other apostles did they ever celebrated Christ’s birthday? The answer is NO.

Then beloved, if we have no Biblical support of this celebration, why do you feel so comfortable to celebrate it and even pull Christ’s name into it? Aren’t you even afraid that it was said that whoever shall add anything to the written word, so shall the wrath of God be added upon him/her?

11.                THE SECOND ADVENT.

The second coming of Jesus Christ is a well documented event in the Bible. The main problem is that some people believe that He will come like a thief i.e. secretly and take his own to heaven. This opinion is based on Paul’s words to the Thessalonians church;

For yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night.” 1Thess. 5:2

Sabbath keepers unite in this, they reject the secretive theory and agree that when He comes, it will be something open and everybody will see Him coming. The Saviour's coming will be literal, personal, visible, and worldwide. This belief is based on some Biblical verses that show that when Jesus comes, He will come with a host of heavens;

For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first:” 1 Thess. 4:16.

If He will come with a shout, voice and trump, then definitely it’s not a secret thing.

Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen.” Rev. 1:7

Then what did Apostle Paul mean in 1 Thessalonians 5:2? The answer is simple, “But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only.” Matt 24:36. Just like a thief comes without the knowledge of the household members, thus will the Son of man come without the knowledge of the world. The verse talk of ‘the day of the Lord’ as the one that will come as a thief and not the Lord Himself. Paul informs us that those who believe in Christ will surely know when the days are near; “But ye, brethren, are not in darkness, that that day should overtake you as a thief.”    1 Thess. 5:4.


The word of God is a sword that cuts on both sides, thus said Paul, the Apostle. Indeed the Bible is not short of events and examples where men and women of God were hated and to some extent even killed because of their faith,. These men and women of God stood against a system that went against the word of God, to the point that they paid with their dear lives. Think of Jeremiah son of Hilkah, Isaiah son of Amoz, Paul of Tarsus, Stephen the deacon and many more including our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. All these men had one thing in common that we don’t have…

The Lord Jesus said that He came not to bring peace into the world but a sword. He came to bring enmity among members of the same family, friends etc. But are Sabbath keeper’s taking this enmity too far? Are they concentrating so much on the enmity at the expense of love?

Matthew 10:34-36.

Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter in law against her mother in law. And a man's foes shall be they of his own household.”

1)    Enmity- “deep-rooted hatred.”I will put enmity between thee and the woman, between thy seed and her seed" (Gen. 3:15). The friendship of the world is "enmity with God" (James 4:4; 1 John 2:15, 16). The "carnal mind" is "enmity against God" (Rom. 8:7). By the abrogation of the Mosaic institutes the "enmity" between Jew and Gentile is removed. They are reconciled, are "made one" (Eph. 2:15, 16).” Easton’s 1897 Bible Dictionary.

2)    Hatred- “among the works of the flesh (Gal. 5:20). Altogether different is the meaning of the word in Deut. 21:15; Matt. 6:24; Luke 14:26; Rom. 9:13, where it denotes only a less degree of love.” Easton’s 1897 Bible Dictionary.

Do Sabbath keepers hate each other or do they have enmity to one another? This is a personal question to you.

Once Jesus challenged his disciples by telling them that they are to exceed the Pharisees and Seduces in all their undertakings. He went on to tell them that if they loved people selectively, what advantage do they have over others, even sinners love their own. If we were only to greet those who agree to our points of doctrine, what form of salvation is that?

Paul, the Apostle had another lesson in the book of Colossians 2:14-16. He addressed the church in Colossian with very strong terms. It seems this church also had issues as regards to keeping the holydays, new moons, food and Sabbaths. I know that this verse in the hands of a non feast keeper is like a hammer. But let it be known that, Apostle Paul never intended this part of his letter to Colossians to be used so. From the words of his letters, if am asked to identify two churches that gave Paul a lot of headaches, then Colossians will be one of them.

Paul was very categorical, “Let no man judge you.” Yeah, its true that he wasn’t against the feast or foods here. But the point is, “Let no man jusge you.” How many have you judged/ Instead of being teachers of the word, we have become judges of our fellow mortals. What are you supposed not to be judged?

1)    Feasts.
2)    Sabbaths.
3)    Foods.
4)    New moons.

Now some may argue that the Sabbath mentioned here are those that come with feasts. To me I believe that even the seventh day Sabbath is among them! That verse should not be a weapon at all to a feast keeper nor to a non feast keeper. Why? As said earlier in Book two, one of the areas that Sabbath keepers agree on is on ‘clean and unclean meat’ Let’s take someone who does not keep feasts using that verse as prove that one should not be judged for not keeping the feasts as they are a shadow of things to come. The same verse that beloved has translated as illustrated above, also talks of food. What will happen, when after opposing feasts using Colossians, you meet a learned theologian who uses the same argument against clean and unclean meat? “Yes, Paul said that no one should judge us on what we eat or drink, as these things are a shadow of things to come.”

Only when we take one another as beloved children of the Most high, we will stop judging one another.

The men and women of God mentioned in the first paragraph in this unit. Had one thing in common that we might be lacking. All of them withstood evil just like us, but they had an additional thing that we might be lacking. Take Jesus for example, the Pharisees and seduces tried to find anything against him but they did not find. To the point that at times they feared to arrest Him in fear of people (the public). They were never sure how the public would react once He was arrested. Jeremiah the son of Hilkah had been mentioned earlier. Even after being casted into a well, someone sacrificed to make sure that, Jeremiah ate and drunk. Time and space may not allow me to give accounts of David son of Jesse who fasted and prayed when his enemies became sick, of Deacon Stephen who prayed for forgiveness of those who were stoning him and many others who though were put to death they died with no grudge or enmity or hatred in their hearts.

“Forgive them Father for they know not what they are doing” Great men of God cried out. They departed in peace, peace that surpasses all understanding. Their hearts were filled with the goodness of the Holy Spirit that grudge would not have found any space in them. They knew that what has been prepared for them is not comparable to the meager sufferings they were subjected to.

Brothers and Sisters no Sabbath keeping church has persecuted you in anyway. No one has raised his/her hand over you or your family. Why do you fill your heart with hatred? Why proslylate a creature that was molded from the same clay as you?

It’s time that we must fill our hearts with love. Let all hatred that one had against a certain Sabbath keeping church be replaced with love. This gospel of the Kingdom of God is nothing unless p[reached with lots of love.


Divided we are, indeed we have perfected the act of division to the best of our knowledge. But what does the Bible says regarding division? In most argument Sabbath keepers will see the other group as being weak in faith. A feast keeper will see a non feast keeper as being weak in faith to the point that he/she can not find eight or so days for the feast. To some feast keepers, non feast keepers are too busy with their own work and that’s why they oppose the feasts to the last of their breath.

Some non feast keeper sees a feast keeper as weak to the point of not believing and trusting the atoning blood and grace of Jesus to give them salvation. A non feast keeper will take a feast keeper as one who is weak to the extent that he/she (feast keeper) tries to be justified not by faith as the Bible says but by keeping feasts that were done away with at Calvary.

Some Sacred name believer sees a non sacred one as too weak to the point that he/she (non sacred name members) can not use the right name in reference to the Father and Son. To him/her, non sacred name believers are very weak and can’t know the power in the Name. They fail to understand why a Sabbath keeper can be as weak as to accept Babylonian Names for the Deities. To some non sacred name members, the Sacred Name member is as weak as to believe that the name Jesus can not save unless the Father’s name is mentioned. They fail to understand, how weak some member can be as to accept only two names in Hebrew language, yet they comfortably use other words/Names in the Bible in the Greek translated version.

To them who believe in the manifestation of the Holy Spirit through speaking in tongues. They take those who don’t speak in tongues as of a weaker faith in that the Spirit can not be manifested in them. They see themselves as of more spiritual level than those who don’t speak in tongues. To them no tongues is a sign of sin or weakness/lukewormness and thus any church that does not have this sign is a weak one.

Now brethren, our weakness has been a source of our division, contrary to the Bible teachings. Can you imagine if a feast keeper will use that time in the feast for spiritual nourishment. When the feast is over and he/she meets a non feast keeper, if the spiritual nourishment that he/she received during the feast is overflowing, then the non feast keeper will feel it and he/she would want to know the secret behind that. Imagine a non feast keeper who is overflowing with the spiritual tidings, talking to a feast keeper. Automatically the feast keeper will be challenged on how can she/he be in the feast only for him/her to come out the same old person, yet this one (non feats keeper) does not and is overflowing with good tidings. Do we need to be arming ourselves daily with tracts, Judah, and other magazines for a battle anytime we meet? Let the overflowing off the Holy Spirit in us do the work among brethren.

The Bible is very clear that the weak and the strong should fellowship together and should be supported by the strong ones.

Him that is weak in the faith receive ye, but not to doubtful disputations.” Rom.14:1

We then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves.” Rom. 15:1

I have shewed you all things, how that so labouring ye ought to support the weak, and to remember the words of the Lord Jesus, how he said, It is more blessed to give than to receive.” Acts 20:35.

Now we exhort you, brethren, warn them that are unruly, comfort the feebleminded, support the weak, be patient toward all men.” 1 Thess. 5:14.

How comes in our times our weakness is a source of our division?


·        The Holy Bible.
·        The Life of Ellen White by D.M. Canright.
·        Sacred Name Movement History by Yahweh’s Assembly in Yahshua.
·        The Sacred Name-Is a Christian Required to use it? By Ken Graham.
·        Doctrinal Points of The Church of God (7th Day)
·        Statement of Doctrine (Mission Statement) of Assemblies of Yahweh.
·        Fundamental Beliefs of Seventh Day Adventist.
·        A synopsis of the beliefs of Yahweh’s Assembly in Yahshua.
·        Statement of Belief of Seventh Day Baptists.
·        Statement of Belief of Sabbath Church of God.
·        What we Believe- General Conference Church of God (Seventh day)
·        Standards for Messianic Jewish congregations and chavurot.
·        The Mount Zion Reporter (Judah)